Litchfield, the N. W. county of Connecticut, bordering on New York and Massachusetts; area, 885 sq. m.; pop. in 1870 48,727. It is watered by the Housatonic, Naugatuck, and Farmington rivers, with their branches, which supply extensive water power. The surface is uneven, in some parts mountainous, and the soil is good. Iron ore abounds, and is extensively manufactured. The Housatonic, the Naugatuck, and the Connecticut Western railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 6,822 bushels of wheat, 50,444 of rye, 236,900 of Indian corn, 257,606 of oats, 27,561 of buckwheat, 319,497 of potatoes, 1,048,569 lbs. of tobacco, 51,759 of wool, 1,617,850 of butter, 1.307,396 of cheese, and 109,415 tons of hay. There were 6,076 horses, 22,514 milch cows, 6,482 working oxen, 17,477 other cattle, 17,824 sheep, and 7,232 swine. Of the numerous manufacturing establishments, the principal were 14 of agricultural implements, 9 of brass, brass ware, pins, etc, 41 of carriages, 3 of cotton goods, 10 of cutlery and edge tools, 12 of hardware, 2 of hats and caps, 20 of iron, 4 of machinery, 1 of needles, 6 of paper, 2 of plated ware, 1 of silk goods, 17 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 9 of woollen goods, 1 of worsted goods, 11 tanneries, 6 currying establishments, 31 flour mills, and 30 saw mills.
Litchfield, the shire town of Litchfield co., Connecticut, situated between the Naugatuck river on the east and the Shepaug on the west, 30 m. W. of Hartford; pop. in 1870, 3,113. It contains five post villages, viz.: Bantam Falls, East Litchfield (on the Naugatuck railroad), Litchfield, Milton, and Northfield. The village of Litchfield is near the centre of the town, at the terminus of the Shepaug railroad, and occupies an elevated site noted for the beauty of its view. It is built chiefly on two streets, shaded with ancient elms and crossing each other at right angles; near the intersection of these are two parks, in the E. one of which a monument to the memory of citizens of the town who fell in the civil war has been erected. The village contains the court house, jail, a national and a savings bank, three hotels, several schools, a private lunatic asylum, two weekly newspapers, and four churches. It was the seat of a celebrated law school, established in 1784 and discontinued in 1838, and of the first young ladies' seminary established in the United States. The village has become a favorite summer resort.
Bantam lake on the S. border of the town is the largest in the state, and at Bantam Falls near its outlet, where there is good water power, several factories have been built. - The town was settled in 1720. In 1859 the town of Morris was taken from it, and in 18CG a portion was annexed to Torrington.