Spain I. A Province Of Old Castile, bordering on Alava, Navarre, Saragossa, Soria, and Burgos; area, 1,945 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 182,941. The northern part is generally level and very fertile, producing large crops of grain, fruits, and vegetables, and pasturing great numbers of sheep, goats, cattle, mules, and horses. Superior wine and oil are manufactured. The southern portion is crossed by the Sierra Neila, and consists mostly of bar-ren hills; but it is rich in iron, copper, tin, antimony, marble, and coal. The province lies in the basin of the Ebro, which forms its northern boundary, and is traversed by several affluents of that river. It has limited manufactures of linen, woollen, and cotton goods, pottery, cutlery, shoes, and hats. The most important towns, besides the capital, are Cala-horra and Arnedo.
II. A City, capital of the province, on the Ebro, 153 m. N. N. E. of Madrid; pop. about 11,000. It is well built, with wide paved streets and fine squares, and is surrounded by a wall. It contains six churches, two hospitals, three convents, a Jesuit college, a prison, a theatre, and an orphan asylum, and is overlooked by the ruins of an ancient castle. There are manufactures of wine, oil, brandy, linen, woollen, and hempen fabrics, hats, leather, cards, and candles. The Ebro is here crossed by a magnificent bridge of 12 arches, built in 1138. The French captured the town in 1808, and again in 1823. It was the headquarters of Gen. Espartero during the closing period of the first Carlist war.