Lyon Playfair, an English chemist, born in Meerut, British India, in 1819. He was educated at St. Andrews, Scotland, studied chemistry under Thomas Graham in Glasgow and. London, and in Giessen under Liebig, and became professor of that science in the royal institution at Manchester. He was consulted by Prince Albert on matters of art and science, drew up sanitary reports for the government, was appointed by Sir Robert Peel chemist to the museum of practical geology, and took a prominent part in the exhibition of 1851. He was joint secretary of the department of science and art from 1853 to 1856, when he was made inspector general of government museums and schools of, science. In 1857 he was elected president of the London chemical society, and in 1858 professor of chemistry in the university of Edinburgh. He resigned his chair in 1868, and has since represented the universities of Edinburgh and St. Andrews in parliament in the liberal interest. In November, 1873, he became a member of Gladstone's administration as postmaster general, and retired with it in February, 1874.