Lyons (Fr. Lyon; anc. Lugdunum), the principal manufacturing city of France, and since 1834 one of its most powerful fortresses, capital of the department of Rh6ne, at the junction of the Saone and Rhone, 245 m. S. S. E. of Paris, 175 m. N. N. W. of Marseilles, and 70 m. W. S. W. of Geneva; pop. in 1872, 323,417. The city proper is chiefiy built on a peninsula or tongue of land between the Saone and Rhone. Some extensive quarters, as St. Just, St. George, St. Irenee, Vaise, etc, are situated on the W. or right bank of the Saone, on and around the hill of Fourvieres, which is crowned by the church of Notre Dame de Fourvieres, the dome of which is 360 ft. above the Saone, commanding the most imposing view of the city and of the Alps on the east; and on the left bank of the Rhone are the suburb of La Guillotiere, which is divided into two sections by the main street, and the new district of the Quartier des Brot-teaux, now the handsomest part of the city. South of the city the new and handsome suburb Perrache extends toward the peninsula; and on the north, beyond the fortifications, on the declivity of a hill extending from one river to the other, is the commune of La Croix-Rousse, including the suburbs of Serin and St. Clair, and chiefly inhabited by weavers.

Even the most repulsive and ancient parts of Lyons, where the narrow and crooked streets and lanes are darkened by the excessive elevation of the houses, which are seven to nine stories high, have been improving for many years past. There are over 50 squares or public places in Lyons, but only a few of them are very attractive; of these the Pare de la Tete d'Or is the most frequented. The Place Belle-cour, however, is one of the largest squares in Europe. The other leading square is the Place des Terreaux, with the hotel de ville and the museum or palate des beaux-arts. Cinq-Mars and De Thou were executed in this square, and the guillotine was erected there in 1794. - The Saone is spanned by 12 bridges. The principal are those of Nemours, Tilsit or de l'Arche-veche, the superb bridge of Mulatiere, and the bridge de la Quarantaine. The Rhone is spanned by seven bridges, the most noted of which are the suspension bridge, Lafayette bridge, and the bridge de la Guillotiere, the most ancient in the city.

The quays of Lyons are the most remarkable of Europe; among the most celebrated are those of St. Clair and St. Antoine. The principal public buildings are the city hall and the palate des beaux-arts. The former is one of the finest of the kind in France, has a front of about 150 ft., and is flanked with a square tower and dome at either end; the balustrade is ornamented with statues of Hercules and Minerva, and in the centre is a clock tower surmounted by a cupola. The palais des beaux-arts, in the ancient convent of St. Pierre, consists of four large piles of buildings, devoted to the exchange, chambers of commerce, museum, and collection of arts and science (with some remarkable specimens of Roman antiquity), schools of drawing and natural history, agricultural and other societies, depot of machines for the silk manufacture, etc, and to a public library, which is one of the best provincial libraries in France. Another celebrated public building is the Hotel-Dieu, which was founded by Childebert and his queen in the 6th century, and consists of a series of buildings extending along the Rhone. The hospital of An-tiquailles occupies the site of the ancient palace of the Roman emperors, and is devoted to lunatics and incurable diseases.

The cathedral or church of St. John is a remarkable Gothic edifice; the church of St. Nizier is an elegant building of the 14th century; that of Ainay, and the churches of the Cordeliers and of St. Paul, are among the other interesting ecclesiastical structures. Lyons has about 30 Roman Catholic churches and chapels, four Protestant places of worship, and a synagogue. It is the seat of an archbishop, and has an academy, with faculties of Catholic theology, science, and literature; a lyceum, a veterinary school, many educational and charitable institutions, and a mont de piete. It has a branch of the bank of France, and a great number of courts of justice, among which is a conseil des prud'-hommes, a commercial tribunal, composed half of masters, half of workmen, designed to settle in a conciliatory spirit disputes respecting wages and other matters. The fortifications consist of 18 detached forts arranged in a circle of about 13 m. round the city, crowning the hills of St. Croix and Fourvieres on the right bank of the Saone, and of La Croix-Rousse above the suburb of that name.

They have been built since 1834, in consequence of the outbreaks of that year and of 1831. The chief work, Fort Montessay, has full command of the turbulent suburb of La Croix-Rousse, which may be entirely cut off from the city by a fortified barrack on the Place des Bernar-dines. - The jewellers and goldsmiths of Lyons transact a large business. In the sham jewelry trade Lyons ranks next to Paris. Carriages, glass and crystal, various kinds of acid, archil, soft soap, indigo, liqueurs, iron and machinery, leather, colored paper, etc, are all manufactured to some extent in Lyons; its beer is celebrated; the production of felt hats has declined; its dye houses for cotton, silk, and wool are of great importance; woollen shawls are extensively manufactured. All these branches of industry, however, are overshadowed by the silk manufactures. They were introduced into Lyons during the reign of Louis XI. by merchants of Florence and Lucca, and great factories were established in 1536 by Genoese manufacturers. From 1650 to 1680 the silk industry employed from 9,000 to 12,000 looms.

After the revocation of the edict of Nantes, when many of the most skilful weavers went into exile at London, Cre-feld, and other places, the number declined to about 4,000. It rose to 18,000 in 1788, was reduced to 3,000 or 4,000 by the revolution, but has since steadily increased; and in 1873 the number of looms in the city and its vicinity was estimated at 70,000, and the number of hands employed at 140,000, of whom about one half were in the city. The average annual value of the silk manufactures was estimated at $76,000,000, and the value of the raw silk imported at $60,000,000. Silk weaving is not conducted in factories, but in the dwellings of the master weavers, each of whom has usually from two to eight looms, which with the greater portion of their fittings are his own property. He and his family keep as many of the looms at work as they can, and employ compagnons for the remainder. The latter are not permanent residents, hut remain in the city only while there is a demand for their labor. Apprentices and lanceurs (children who prepare bobbins, etc.) constitute the rest of the operatives. The silk merchants supply the raw silk and the patterns to the owners of the looms, to whom is intrusted the task of producing the web in a finished state.

Half the wages paid by the silk merchants go to the owners of the looms and half to the laboring weavers. Most of the raw silk reaches Lyons through London, and some also via Paris and Marseilles. A school of art (institution cle la Martiniere), to which a professor is attached who teaches the adaptation of designs to the loom, or the mise en carte, and which gives free instruction in drawing and modelling to about 200 pupils, has done much to improve manufacturing skill. The demand from the United States has given a great impulse to the silk industry of Lyons, and led to the manufacture of a cheaper but strong kind of fabric. In connection with the silk trade is an establishment in the palais des beaux-arts, called the condition, where, by the agency of heat, the unwrought silk is reduced to an equable weight and dryness. The weavers are imperfectly educated, but are not much addicted to intemperance. Continuous hard labor, however, has degraded them physically; they are subject to scrofulous and spinal diseases and rheumatism, and many of them are exempted from military service on account of debility or deformity. The upper and middle classes of Lyons are thriving, and include many families of great wealth. The neighborhood of the city is adorned with a great number of beautiful villas.

One great drawback to the more rapid increase of the industrial establishments is the want of coal. The deficiency of water has been remedied since 1856 through the operations of the great water works company, in connection with the canalization of France. The same company has also introduced a better system of sewerage. - The ancient city of Lug-dunum was mainly built on the hill of Four-vieres (anc. Forum Vetus). Munatius Plancus, governor of Gaul, founded there a colony as early as 43 B. C. Augustus, under whom it became the capital of the province (Gallia Lugdunensis), established there a senate, a college of magistrates, and an athenaeum. It also became the centre of the four great Roman roads which traversed Gaul. Caligula instituted there games and festivals. Claudius, who was born there, gave to Lugdunum the privileges of a Roman city. In A. D. 58 it was destroyed by fire, but rebuilt by Nero. Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus erected in the city many monuments, and annual fairs were established.

Having declared for Albinus, it was pillaged by his rival Sep-timius Severus after his victory near the town (197). Several martyrs were put to death during the persecutions against the Christians, St. Pothinus among the number, and according to later writers also St. Irenaeus. Attila desolated the city in the middle of the 5th century, when most of the great Roman monuments were destroyed, although a few relics of them still remain. From that time until the beginning of the 14th century the city was successively under the sway of the Burgundians, Franks, German emperors, and its feudal archbishops and municipal council. Under Philip the Fair it was annexed to France. During the following period the city acquired great celebrity by its trade and industry. It was fortified by Francis I., and embellished with quays and fine edifices under Louis XV. The citizens manifested great enthusiasm in behalf of the revolution of 1789, and subsequently embraced the Girondist party. Afterward they rose against the convention, killing the president of the Jacobin club (Challier), and the city was subjected to a siege by a republican army under Kellermann at the beginning of August, 1793, and compelled to surrender after a heroic resistance of two months.

As a punishment the convention doomed the city to destruction. Collot d'Herbois and Fouche were sent there as commissioners; the city and its environs were deluged with blood, and several thousand persons were put to death. Under the reign of Napoleon I., when the loom of Jacquard, a native of Lyons, was introduced, the city recovered its prosperity; but it was again shaken in 1814 and 1815, and still more seriously by the commercial crisis which followed the revolution of 1830. A strike for higher wages produced in November, 1831, a terrible insurrection. The operatives seized the hotel de ville, but evacuated it on the arrival of Marshal Soult and the duke of Orleans. A formidable political outbreak in April, 1834, could only be quelled after several days' fighting in the streets. A new calamity was added by the inundation of 1840. The revolution of 1848, however, did not create any great disturbances. In 1856 Lyons was desolated by another inundation. During the war of 1870-'71 it was repeatedly the scene of popular commotions, which were however easily checked.

The radical spirit of the masses manifested itself after the war chiefly under the mayoralty of Barodef, and in the election of Rane to the national assembly in May, 1873.

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Lyons, a town and village, capital of Wayne co., New York, on the Erie canal and the New York Central railroad, 44 m. W. of Syracuse, and 36 m. E. of Rochester; pop. of the town in 1870, 5,115; of the village, 3,350. The village contains a handsome court house, a national bank, 20 peppermint distilleries, several manufactories, a graded public school, two weekly newspapers, and seven churches. The annual production of oil of peppermint amounts to 100,000 lbs., and there is considerable trade in tobacco, grain, cider, apples, and other fruit.