Lysander, a Spartan soldier, killed in battle in 395 B. 0. There is no mention of him in history till 407 B. C, when he succeeded Cra-tesippidas as navarch or commander of the Spartan fleet in the AEgean. Having increased his fleet to 70 ships, by contingents from the insular and Asiatic allies of Sparta, and obtained pecuniary assistance from Cyrus, recently appointed satrap of Ionia, he defeated the Athenian fleet off Notium, in consequence of the rashness of Antiochus, whom Alcibiades had intrusted with its temporary command. Lysanders term of service having expired, he was succeeded in 406 by Callicratidas, who was killed at the battle of the Arginusse. The allies of Sparta then urged the reappointment of Lysander; but as the Lacedaemonian law did not allow the office to be held twice by the same person, he was named vice admiral, virtually with the chief command, though nominally subordinate to Aracus. He at once proceeded to Ephesus, gathered a powerful fleet, established his personal authority in Miletus, took Cedrese in Caria and sold its inhabitants into slavery, and carried Lampsacus by storm.
The Athenian armament soon arrived, and fixed its station at AEgospotami, on the opposite side of the Hellespont. It consisted of 180 ships, under the command of ten generals, none of whom except Conon was qualified for his position. Over against the Athenians in the harbor of Lampsacus lay the Spartan fleet. For four successive days the Athenian commanders sailed across the intervening sea, with their ships in battle array, and dared their enemy to come out of his harbor. On the fifth, when the Athenians, grown presumptuous, had beached their triremes, Lysander rowed swiftly across the Hellespont, and captured the entire navy of Athens, with all its seamen, except eight or nine galleys that escaped with Conon to Cyprus, and the sacred ship Paralus that bore to Athens the intelligence of the disaster. This catastrophe decided the fate of Athens, which surrendered to Lysander early in 404, and also brought to a close the Pelo-ponnesian war. He was now by far the most powerful man in Greece, and the pride and arrogance natural to him were manifested in the most unrestrained manner.
A residence in Sparta was no longer tolerable to him, nor did he return thither till recalled by the ephori to answer for his misconduct in Asia. After the accession of Agesilaus he was appointed one of the 30 councillors who were to accompany that king in his expedition to the East; but his arrogance soon destroyed whatever influence he may have had With Agesilaus, and at his own request he was sent to superintend affairs in the Hellespontine cities. In 395 he was placed in command of a military force which was destined to cooperate with the army of Pausanias in reducing the Boeotians and their allies. He entered Boeotia and laid siege to Haliartus, but was surprised by the Thebans under the walls of that city, and slain. It is said that at the time of his death he was involved in a conspiracy which had for its object the destruction of the exclusive right of the Heraclida3 to the throne of Sparta.