Manolio Malpighi, an Italian anatomist, born near Bologna in 1628, died in Pome, Nov. 29. 1694. In 1056 he was appointed by Ferdinand II. of Tuscany professor of medicine at Pisa. where he made the acquaintance of the celebrated mathematician Borelli, who first convinced him of the propriety of applying experimental researches to the'elucidation of physical science. Ill health, however, soon compelled his return to Bologna, where he continued to practise as a physician till 1662, when ho was called to a professorship at Messina. In 1691 he was invited to Koine by Innocent XII.. who appointed him his chief physician and chamberlain. His reputation is mainly due to the fact that he was the first to employ the simple microscope, then recently invented, in investigating the anatomical structure of plants and animals, and particularly upon his discovery by this means of the capil-ary circulation of the blood from the arteries to the veins Harvey had already in 1628 demonstrated the circulation of the blood as a whole- that is to say, the return of the blood which had passed out from the heart by the arteries back again to the heart by the veins.
The mode in which the blood passed through heinstance of the tissues, from the arteries to the veins, was however still unknown; and no doubt it was partly this fact which prevented the ready acceptance of Harvey's doctrine by the anatomists of the time. But in 1661 Malpighi saw with the microscope the circulation of the blood through the capillaries in the frog's lung, and afterward in the mesentery; thus demonstrating its passage by minute canals from the arteries to the veins, and supplying the only deficiency which had existed in Harvey's discovery. His name has been perpetuated in that of several anatomical textures discovered and described by him, viz.: the retc Malpighianum of the epidermis, the Malpi-ghian bodies of the spleen, and the Malpighian tufts of the kidney. His principal works are: Observations Anatomicce de Pulmonibus (fol., Bologna, 1661); De Viscerum Structura Bxer-citationes Anatomicce (1666; many times reprinted and translated into French); Disser-tatio Bpistolica de Formatione Pulli in Ovo (London, 1673); Dissertatio Bpistolica de Bom-hijce (London, 1669); De Pulmonum Substantia et Motu (Leyden, 1672); Anatome Planta-rum (London, 1675 - '9); and Bpistolade Glan-dulis Conglobatis (London, 1689). The only complete collective edition of his works was published at Venice in 1743.