Marshall Hall, an English physician, born at Basford, Nottinghamshire, in 1790, died in Brighton, Aug. 11, 1857. At the age of 19 he went to the university of Edinburgh and studied medicine and chemistry. In the latter department he pointed out the distinction between all chemical bodies, which ruled their chemical affinities, caused by the presence or absence of oxygen. From his study at this time of morbid anatomy in close connection with clinical medicine resulted his "Treatise on Diagnosis." Having taken his degree of M. D. in 1812, he was for two years house physician at the royal infirmary in Edinburgh, then visited the medical schools of Paris, Berlin, and Gottingen, and settled in Nottingham in 1815. He soon obtained a large practice, was appointed physician to the general hospital of the city, and became a valuable contributor to the literature of his profession. His "Treatise on Diagnosis" (1817) has in the main stood the test of 60 years' trial. "Commentaries on various Diseases peculiar to Women" (1827) is still a standard book of reference. In 1826 he removed to London, where he prosecuted his researches.

In 1853-'4 he visited the United States, Canada, and Cuba, and published "The Twofold Slavery of the United States." Among his most important discoveries is the method now known by his name for treating asphyxia. (See Drowning.) In addition to the works already mentioned, he published "Principles of the Theory and Practice of Medicine" (London, 1837);

"Observations and Suggestions in Medicine" (2 vols. 8vo); and several important treatises on the nervous system.