Monbuttoo, a country of central Africa, bordering on Nyam-nyam, Moruvoo, and Akka, between lat.V and 4° N., and Ion. 28° and 29° E.; area, about 4,000 sq. m.; pop. estimated by Schweinfurth in 1870 at 1,000,000. It is generally a table land 2,500 to 2,800 ft. above the sea, with gentle elevations in some places 100 ft. above the beds of the streams. It is traversed in the north by the Keebaly river, which is joined by the Gadda flowing in from the southwest. They form the Welle, which proceeds west along the southern portion of Nyam-nyam, and is enlarged by numerous tributaries, finally forming in its upper course the more easterly of the two arms, which, uniting in Baghirmi under the name of Shary, are the source of Lake Tchad. The country is described as very beautiful, with vast groves of plantains, oil palms, and other trees, and a delightful verdure. The spontaneous production of fruits and tubers in profusion limits cultivation to the narrowest bounds, and almost the only products requiring attention are sesame, ground nuts, sugar cane, and tobacco. The breeding of cattle is not practised by the Monbuttoo; vast numbers of goats are stolen from their neighbors, but there is no attempt to rear them; and, excepting dogs and poultry, they have no domestic animals.

The people are of a lighter tint than other known nations of central Africa, and Schweinfurth compares the color of their skins to that of ground coffee. They differ from other negroes also in the greater length and curve of the nose. Weaving is unknown to them; the men clothe themselves with the bark of the tig tree, and the women go almost entirely naked. They practise cir-cmncision, and polygamy is unlimited. They are ingenious workers of copper and iron, expert wood carvers, and display some facility in the manufacture of pottery. Their hunting expeditions supply them with a great abundance of wild meat; but, according to Schweinfurth, their cannibalism is "the most pronounced of all the known nations of Africa." An important article of traffic is ivory, which is a monopoly of the king.