Karl Ludwig, a German theologian, born in Wittenberg, Aug. 0, 1751, died there, Dec. 5, 1831. In 1781 he became preacher at Beucha, and in 1790 superintendent general and professor of theology in the university of Wittenberg. He resigned in 1813, and in 1817 was made director of the seminary for preachers in that city. He published De Revelatione Religionis Externa eademque Publica (1808); Be Discrimine Revelationis Imperatortm et Didacticoe (2 vols., 1830); and Ueber das Heil der Theologie (1830).
Karl Inimanuel, a German theologian, son of the preceding, born at Borna, Sept. 21, 1787, died in Berlin, Aug. 21, 1808. He received his first education at Wittenberg, studied theology under Schleiermacher, in 1817 became professor in the new theological seminary at Berlin, and in 1822 professor and university preacher at Bonn. In 1847 he returned to Berlin, where he was made professor, university preacher, and member of the high consistory. Besides many minor treatises, he published System der christ-lichen Lehre (1829; 6th ed., 1851; English translation, Edinburgh, 1849), and Praktisehe Theologie (3 vols., 1847-'67). A volume of his Gesammelte Ahhandlungen was published at Gotha in 1870.
Gregor Wilhelm, a German philologist, brother of the preceding, born in Wittenberg, Nov. 22, 1790, died in Leipsic, July 22, 1861. He was professor at Kiel from 1827 to 1852, and afterward until his death at Leipsic. He was a leading opponent of F. A. Wolf's theories in regard to the Homeric poems. Among his works are: ErTclarende Anmerlcungen zu Homer's Odyssee (3 vols., 1826-'40); Prmparatio Indagandm per Homeri Odysseam Interpolations (1828); Meletemata de Historia Homeri (2 vols., 1830-'37); Die Sagenpoesie der Griechen (1852); and Beitrilge zur Geschichte derepischen Poesle der Griechen (18G2).
Karl Willielm, a German historian, son of the preceding, born in Zerbst, Dec. 22, 1818. He graduated at the university of Kiel in 1844, became professor there in 1858, and at Konigsbergin1862. His principal works are: Polybius: zur Geschichte antiker Politih und Historiograpliie (Kiel, 1842); Die Gracchenund ihrendchsten Vorgdnger (Berlin, 1846); Vorarbeiten zur Geschichte der Stauf-ischen Periode (Leipsic, 1860); and Die rö-mische Annalistik von ihren ersten Anfangen bis auf Valerius Antias (1873).