Neuwied, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the right bank of the Rhine, 6 m. N. W. of Cob-Jentz; pop. in 1872, 8,664, chiefly Protestants. there are about 400 Moravians, whose extensive establishments have given to Neuwied its chief celebrity. It dates from the 17th century, and by the liberality of its princes industrious persons of different religious creeds were attracted to the place, and established manufactures of wool and cotton which have given to it its present prosperity. The palace possesses a museum of natural history, and a collection of Roman antiquities, chiefly from the buried Roman town of Victoria discovered in this vicinity in 1791. - The mediatized princes of Neuwied (or Wied, also Wied-Neuwied) are of very ancient origin, and among them have been several eminent men. Prince Heemanx (1814-'64) was distinguished as a soldier and as the anonymous author of philosophical works. His son, Prince William (born in 1845), the present head of the house, is a brother of the princess Elizabeth, who became in 18G9 the wife of Charles I. of Rou-mania, and he married in 1871 the Dutch princess Mary. An uncle of Prince Hermann was the celebrated traveller Prince Maximilian (1782-1867). He served in the Prussian army, but after having risen to the rank of major general left the service, and in 1815-'17 travelled in the interior of Brazil, exploring the dense forests of Bahia and Espirito Santo. He devoted special attention to zoology and ethnography, and was the first European to give any definite information respecting the Botocudos. In 1832-4 he travelled in the United States, visiting its remote western regions.
He published Reise nacli Brasilien (2 vols., Frankfort, 1819-'20), Abhildungen sur Naturgeschichte Brasiliens(Weimar, 1823-31), Beitrdge zur Naturgescliichte Brasiliens (4 vols., 1824-'33), and Reise durch Nordamerika, with 81 plates (2 vols., Coblentz, 1838-'43; English version, London, 1843), which is valued for its magnificent illustrations and its contributions to American ethnography. His zoological collection, embracing some of the rarest specimens of the South America fauna, is now in the American museum of natural history, New York. A genus of palms has been named in his honor Maximiliana.