New Lebanon, a town of Columbia co., New York, bordering on Massachusetts, on the Harlem Extension railroad, 20 m. E. S. E. of Albany; pop. in 1870, 2,124. In the E. part is a large Shaker settlement (Mount Lebanon) of from 500 to 600 persons (including a few in the adjoining town of Canaan), owning about 4,000 acres of land. They have a large meeting house, a laboratory, a grist mill, five saw mills, a chair factory, two seed establishments, two machine shops, eight dwellings, a stone barn 196 by 50 ft., said to be the most perfect in the country, and seven other large barns. There are 26 buildings used as workshops. Their principal occupation is the raising and putting up of medicinal plants and garden seeds, the preparation of roots and extracts, and the manufacture of brooms and baskets. Of garden seeds and medicinal articles the annual production is about 200,000 lbs. The village of Lebanon Springs is a place of resort for its thermal springs, the largest of which discharges 16 barrels of water per minute. According to the analysis of Dr. Meade, a pint of the water contains 0.25 gr. chloride of calcium, 0.44 gr. chloride of sodium, 0.19 gr. carbonate of lime, and 0.37 gr. sulphate of lime.

Gas, composed of 89.4 parts nitrogen and 10.6 parts oxygen, is constantly given out in the proportion of 5 cubic inches for every pint of water. The discharge of this spring supplies several baths, and keeps two or three mills running throughout the year. The waters have a uniform temperature of 73° at all seasons. There are several hotels. The town also contains an extensive establishment for the manufacture of medicinal extracts and pharmaceutical preparations, which makes its own glass ware; and it has the oldest thermometer factory in the United States.