Lace. [From It. laccio, noose, snare, string. Lace originally meant a braid or tie - a signification still surviving in shoe lace, corset lace, etc. When such braids began to take fancy shapes they were known as passements - of which our present passementerie is a modern instance] The art of making lace was evolved, not invented. Doubtless the points and scallops of leaf and blossom first suggested to primeval man an ornamental edging for garments. Fringes and borders upon the skirts of clothing appear in the earliest rude pictures and carvings of the ancient Egyptians. A little later came the simple cut-work that Time's whirlgig has turned into lace. The earliest authentic account of it is about the sixth century, when high -born Italian nuns wrought it for the sanctuary. Even before that, English nuns were famed for the very open "English work," wonderfully lace-y in effect. Monks, as well as nuns, gave their whole mind to it. St. Dunston himself, in intervals of pulling the devils' nose with red-hot pincers, made designs for the convent workers. The work itself, done upon fine hand-wove linen, with the best flax thread, was sent all over Europe and brought in no small revenue. It was the forerunner of cut-work, from which it is but the shortest of steps to lace. Cut-work had the pattern sewed over thickly and the ground cut away. After a little, skilled needlewomen found that they could make something even more delicately beautiful by interweaving fine linen laces with finer threads upon a parchment-pattern. At first the interweaving was done wholly with the needle, hence the term point-lace. Europe has always been the center of the lace industry, the invention of real lace being claimed by both Italy and Belgium. Without doubt, Italy produced the first point, and Flanders the first pillow lace; but it is impossible to tell which was the earlier production, as the mediaeval records throw but little light upon the subject. Italian reticella, which is the oldest needle-made lace, was evolved from cut-work, and afterward gradually merged into point-lace. This needle-point lace was made wholly by hand, with the needle. A pattern was drawn, usually upon parchment; to this parchment was stitched a stout piece of linen; the heavy threads forming the outlines were then laid along the main lines of the pattern on the parchment and sewed lightly down. Then the whole design is carried out, both solid filling and openwork, with delicate stitching, chiefly in the "button-hole" stitch. In Italy these old hand-made point laces were made up of bits and bits fashioned by many different women in their own little cottages, - here a leaf, there a flower, slowly wrought through the long, weary days, only to be united afterward in the precious web by other workers who never saw its beginning. There is a pretty lesson in the thought that to the exquisite perfection of each of these little pieces is due the rare beauty of the whole. A single flower upon which taste and fancy were lavished, and which deft labor only brought to perfection represents the lives of many diligent women workers. These Italian workers were noted for their laces when Titian was the great portrait painter, and among the legacies left by them are found varieties which may not be fashioned under the grey skies of Northern lands, or in the, smoky cottages of Northern peasants. In executing these unrivalled patterns, the flexible fingers of Venetian senorettas drew the threads within the limits of the pattern from the warp and woof of snow-white linen and wrought them beneath the cloudless skies in the open air, from designs copied from old cathedral windows, or the armorial bearings of knightly families. When the art of point-lace making travelled North the bobbin and cushion were invented to save the eyes, and fingers too, which could not keep the gossamer fabric clean in cottages where smoke and dust conspired to make it yellow. To day the secret of their making is lost, and old point de Venise or point de Genoa is worth very many times its weight in gold, Though lace-making flourishes still in the homes of the peasantry, the product is a poor, cheap stuff, not worthy to be named in the same century with the antique work.

The patterns or designs in lace have varied greatly during the four centuries in which the making of the fabric has been generally known and esteemed as an art. But at all times each radical change has been influenced in a measure by the prevailing taste or fashion of the period in which it was made - so much so that an expert in lace can fix, with absolute certainty, within a few years the date of its manufacture, and can state also the country which produced them. The designs, therefore, have been classified into five separate styles, no two resembling each other in any remarkable degree, although the style of one period following upon another began to vary gradually until the new design was fixed in a uniform manner. The five different styles are: 1st. The Mediaeval which prevailed up to 1550, at which time lace-work was confined to churches and convents. This style is quite remarkable and is made up of curious figures, often grouped together - hideous monsters, sacred emblems, birds, beasts, scroll work, trees, wreaths, and symbols of various kinds. 2d. The Geometrical style, which was greatly in vogue for a period of about seventy years, or from 1550 to 1620. This style was as unlike the Mediaeval as possible, being composed of triangles, diamonds, squares, fragments of circles, lozenges, and all manner of sharp angles and geometrical designs. This style came in favor when lace was first emancipated from the church, or devoted to general purposes. The object of the lace workers seemed to be to rid it of all sacred symbols, even at the expense of taste in design; and even the patterns which did not represent sacred subjects seemed so connected with them that a general change was adopted. There was, therefore, a stiffness and exactness about it - a certain invariable regularity which, in some of the designs, was almost painful. 3d. The Renaissance style. Early in the 17th century a new life seemed to be given to every branch of art then known, and new birth to others. Painting, sculpture, inlaying with metals and precious stones, artistic dress, furniture and houshold decoration became the passion of the hour. As if by magic, clever artists and workmen endowed with wonderful skill sprang up in various countries in Europe, representing every department of art. This period has been called the Renaissance, and, in many respects, the works then performed have not since been surpassed. Lace at this time became a most artistic production; new, graceful patterns were substituted for the old, angular ones, and the style, workmanship and design of the lace of this period has never been equalled by later efforts. The Renaissance style in lace is as far as possible removed from the Geometrical. It is rather flowery, being composed of sprays, flowing garlands, and festoons of leaves and flowers, mingled with scroll-work. These were distributed over the lace rather closely at the beginning, but latterly at greater distances, and put together in exquisite combinations. This style dates from 1620, and holds its sway by the force of its beauty alone until 1720 - a full century. 4th. The Rococo style Time and the people must have changes, even though they may be from better to worse, and for worse it certainly was when the styles of the Renaissance degenerated into the Rococo. The designs become more angular and disconnected; stiff, upright bouquets, with scarcely a drooping flower, are set closely together, uncompromising in their dignity and angularity, leaving but little room for a ground of any sort. The Rococo style extends from 1720 to 1770, and, at first, some of the careless grace of arrangement which characterizes the Renaissance clings to it; but this in time is altogether lost. 5th. The Dotted style. From 1770 this diversion comes into vogue, a decided improvement upon the Rococo, yet lacking the fresh and spirited grace of the Renaissance, and being rather insignificant in design than otherwise. The boquets still appear, but they have shrunk into small proportions; are placed far apart, the ground being powdered with open or close dots, small flowers, rosettes, bees, etc. This style, the last distinct one to be invented, continued in vogue until 1810. Soon after machine lace began to supplant these made by hand, and from this, and because the demand was less than formerly, lace-workers could not earn a living by their skill, and so the manufacture seemed almost to die out. Yet not quite this, for though " the lace trade slumbers, it does not die;" and though the art of making many of the rarest kinds is lost, yet there will always he found lovers of the art in the world to copy and improve upon the old designs in hand-made lace, and a certain market for it, too, among the wealthy and those who have a passion for procuring what is difficult to obtain. Rarity alone makes many things precious to avaricious eyes, but artistic rarities are dear to us all. The present patterns of laces partake, in some degree, of all the foregoing five general styles, yet, as a rule, each country has peculiar patterns of its own as well as special designs for special purposes. Many buyers and wearers of lace do not know why the old lace is so much more valuable and so much more beautiful than the present machine products. The principal reason is, that the valuable old lace is all woven in lost patterns so complex that they cannot now be duplicated by any machinery. It is frequently as fine as a spider's film and cannot be reproduced by the most skilled hand-makers of the present time. In Italy it can be approached but not equalled. In the olden time, whole villages supported themselves by lace making, and patterns were handed down in families from one generation to another. They were valuable heirlooms, for the most celebrated weavers always had as many orders as they could execute in a life-time, and they were bound by an oath taken on the four Gospels to work for only certain dealers. This oath was held by the poorest of them to be binding, and there were instances where they suffered actual want rather than break their word. The daintiest patterns have long since been lost, and to-day specimens of these laces are worth their weight in gold. The lace treasures of royal and wealthy European families are practically beyond price. Queen Victoria's laces are valued at over half a million dollars. Those of ex-Empress Eugenia aggregate almost a million. The Spanish regal laces are not less precious, and the sacred relics of the Italian cathedrals are of incalculable value. The most celebrated laces of the world take rank as follows:

1.    Brussels.                     3. Valenciennes.         5. Alencon.

2.    Mechlin.                      4. Lisle.                       6. Alencon point.

It may readily be supposed that an art, depending so much on individual skill and taste, would vary exceedingly. Nevertheless, all the varieties during the four centuries in which hand-made lace flourished, resolve themselves into two distinct classes, viz: Point lace or needle-point lace, sometimes called Guipure, and Pillow or Bobbin-lace. The Point lace is made wholly with the needle by hand. A pattern is first drawn upon parchment in ink; to this parchment is stitched a piece of linen, and the heavy threads forming the outline of the pattern are then laid along the corresponding lines of the parchment, and sewed lightly down. The whole design is then carried out with delicate stitching. Needle point lace is really embroidery, but it is done upon loose threads which the worker has laid upon a drawn pattern, and which have no connection with each other and no stability until the needlework holds them together. Of point lace 11 different varieties are known to the commercial world. Alencon is the most important of these, it being the fine lace of the 18th century, and being made entirely in small pieces, and afterward sewed together with invisible seams. It derives its name from the town of Alencon, France; Rose, Venetian and Spanis/i point consist of thick, bold patterns formed by rolls of cotton worked over to raise them, the bars which connect them being ornamented with either picot or small stars; Old point is composed of patterns of very small, close stitches on a groundwork of open ones; Argentan lace is usually indistinguishable from Alencon, but often bolder and larger in pattern; Portugese and point d'Alencon resemble Rose point, except that the pattern is somewhat flatter; Dieppe lace, made at Dieppe, France, resembles Valenciennes. It has regular ground for squares, upon which was usually applied a very simple pattern in close-stitch; Mire-court lace, in the 17th century, was a variety of Guipure; at the present day the name describes an applique lace, made of sprigs of bobbin-lace sewed upon a bobbinet ground; Brussels lace, (which term in trade is often given to very fine laces, no matter where made or of what pattern) has a very fine mesh or ground-net, and a pattern of less relief than Alencon. Brussels is also a Pillow lace. The Venetian point in relief is one of the richest and most complicated of all points. All the outlines in relief are formed by means of cotton placed as thick as may be required to raise them. Sometimes the pattern is in double and triple relief; an infinity of beautiful stitches are introduced into the flowers, which are surrounded by a pearl of geometric regularity.

The second large class is Pillow or Bobbin-lace.which is made by a process intermediate between weaving and plaiting, from a number of threads which are kept in their places by the weight of the bobbins attached to them, and are woven and plaited together by hand. The lace is made on a small pillow or cushion, hence the name. The most important Pillow laces are the following:

Many of these laces are always popular, being at all times worn to some extent; others are for a few seasons almost unknown, when suddenly they spring to light again perhaps under a new name, but modified in some slight particular. In Pillow-lace making, the number of bobbins is generally equal to 50 to the square inch. If the lace be 1 inch wide, it will have 625 meshes to the square inch, or 22,500 to the yard. The work, therefore goes on very slowly, though generally performed with the greatest dexterity. Applique lace is made by sewing flowers or sprigs, which may be needle-made or bobbin-made, upon a bobbin ground; Mechlin lace has the pattern outlined by a flat cord or band, very narrow but distinct. It is usually made in one piece - pattern and ground together. The ground is sometimes a mesh or net, and when of this character of pattern is more varied, sometimes being formed of "brides," or connecting links. Mechlin has been called the prettiest of laces. It is fine and transparent, and is best adapted to summer use, being most effective when worn over colors. Its distinguishing feature is the thread which outlines the flower, giving to the fabric somewhat the character of embroidery. Matlasse lace is formed of a medium weight Brussels net; the design though usually in rose, or raised pattern, varies considerable, in many cases being of ferns and scroll work; Cluny is a kind of net-lace, in which the stitch is darned upon a square-net back ground. The patterns are antique and quaint, as of old-fashioned flowers and birds; glazed thread is sometimes introduced in the pattern as an outline, or center line; Torchon is a coarse, scalloped lace made of stout and rather soft and loosely-twisted thread. In parts of Europe largely made by hand, but that sold in this country is made by machinery. Arras is a white lace made at Arras, France, very strong and inexpensive, because of the simplicity of the pattern; Chantilly is a kind of blonde-lace, of which the popular sort has a ground of heavy mesh or net, and the flowers of the pattern in openwork instead of being solid or matted. It is made of non-lustrous silk throughout, so that black lace of this kind is often mistaken for thread-lace; Grammont lace represents two different varieties: one, a white pillow lace, originally made at Grammont, Belgium, and the other a black silk lace, similar to Blonde-lace; Blonde was origin.

Applique,

Chantilly,

Valenciennes,

Honiton,

Mechlin,

Grammont,

Duchesse,

Regency Point,

Matlasse,

Blonde,

Point de Venice,

Irish Point,

Cluny,

Guipure,

Point de Flandre,

Baby Lace,

Torchon,

Llama,

Genoa Point,

Trolly,

Lisle or Arras Thread,

Cashmere,

Point de Medici,

Breton,

Russian,

Yak,

Old Brussels Plait,

Point d'Esprit.

ally a heavy lace made of unbleached silk, from the yellowish color of which the name arose, but now of white, black and colored silk, manufactured at Chantilly, France; Guipure, in the well known silk lace has an open and gimplike mesh, and is made of heavy sewing silk; the figure is usually in set patterns, such as stars and triangles, being bordered by a feather-edge, or a shading of finer mesh; Yak lace is a coarse, heavy and extremely open variety, originally made of the long black hair of the yak, an an-nimal resembling our domestic ox, found in the Himalayan mountains; Valenciennes is called the "queen of laces." The name is derived from the city of Valenciennes, France. It is distinguished by having the same size and kind of thread throughout, for both ground and pattern; the thread being at the same time extremely fine and strong. True Valenciennes is made altogether on the pillow, generally by young girls in dark cellars, (so the thread will remain moist snd supple), no worker retaining her sight after the age of 30. The best of this variety is as beautiful as it is rare, and so rare as only to be bought by the fortunate few. The manufacture dates from the 16th century, being Flemish by birth and French by adoption. In France the real old Valenciennes is so durable and so highly prized that a mother bequeathes it to her daughter as she does her jewels. In the 17th century the lace-makers of Valenciennes could only produce an inch and a half a day, and when working on the most complex patterns only 24 inches a year; it required 10 months, working 15 hours a day, to produce a pair of men's ruffles. The best specimens are so fine and compact that the flower resembles cambric in in its texture; Duchesse lace was originally made in Belgium, being characterized by a great deal of raised work, flying patterns and the like, which are also used in the somewhat similar Honiton laces; Point de Venise, deFlanders, de Medici, Genoa, and other point laces are all to be found imitated in bobbin work; Honiton lace derives its name from the town of Honiton, England, and is remarkable for the beauty of its figures and sprays. Honiton applique is made by working sprays, flowers and other parts of a pattern, bit by bit, on a lace pillow, and securing them by needle to a net ground made separately. In modern manufacture, hand-made sprays are often sewed upon a machine-made ground; Honiton Guipure is a lace of large flower patterns, with a very open ground, and is gene: ally sold under the name of Honiton lace. The utter disappearance of genuine Honiton lace was imminent about the year 1880, with the result that many an old and valued heirloom of this fairy-like fabric was brought from the seclusion of old trunks and boxes, where it had lain for years almost forgotten, but bearing in its yellow hue and delicate pattern the imprint of antiquity. The reason of its threatened disappearance was the fact that the long and minute labor of the human fingers could not compete with the cheap, rapid operations of the marvelous machinery in the Nottingham factories; the number of women who were versed in the old secret of Honiton lace-making began to diminish year by year, and Honiton town itself was almost as little associated practically with lace-making as Worstead is with the woolen manufacture, or Axminster with that of carpets. But the combined efforts of the English government and private enterprise have resulted in an active resuscitation of the industry; Antwerp lace nearly resembles early Alencon. A so-called pot is introduced into the design - that is, a semblance of a vase or basket, constantly repeated; Aurillac lace is made at Aurillac, in France. It is close-woven, solid lace having much pattern in the mesh; Auvergne is made at Auvergne, France. It is commonly a pure bobbin-lace, but of many different makes and patterns; Bayeux lace is made at Bayeux, Normandy. It is a close imitation of Rose-point. The Bayeux pattern is also made in black silk lace, much in demand because made in unusually large pieces, as for shawls, fichus, etc.; Brussels lace, is also made in bobbin-work, as well as by needle, and in trade the term is applied to any extremely fine lace, no matter where made or of what pattern. The thread used for this lace is of flax, and of extraordinary fineness. The finest quality is spun in dark underground rooms, to avoid the dry air which causes the minute thread to break. To secure light a single beam is admitted and directed upon the work. It is the fineness of the thread, as well as delicacy of workmanship which has given to the best Brussels lace such celebrity and rendered it is so costly. This thread, of which it is made, often sells from $1000 to $2500 a pound, being of such fineness and delicacy that machinery is unable to be utilized in the spinning. The finest spun machine-thread does not exceed 800 leas (240,000 yards to the pound), while the hand-spun thread of Westphalia and Belgium for costly laces approximate 1000 and even 1200 leas (360,000 yards to the pound). In the old Brussels lace the design was worked in with the ground. At the present time it is especially an applique lace pattern, being first made on the pillow by bobbins and afterwards sewed on a ground by needle. It is estimated that at the present time there are at least a million lace-workers in the various European countries. France, England, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain and Italy all team with these artisans, and send their handiwork all over the known world. In Germany and Bohemia there are grants in aid of technical schools for teaching lace-making, and in France artistic and intelligent men guide and direct the industry; and also in the British dominions, where its revival was first taken in hand a few years ago. Belgium is the lace makers' chosen home. One fortieth of the whole population is engaged in it. The government supports 900 lace schools, to which children are sent as young as five years. By the time they are ten they are self-supporting,

Naturally, spinning is very unhealthy, and experts receive high wages. The best yarn from a single pound of Brabant flax fetches over $2500. For filling flowers and leaves, fine soft cotton is used. The grounds, too, are often made of cotton. The elaborate patterns are made in sections and joined together by invisible seaming by the most skillfull workers of all. As the lace is never washed before it is sold, the most exquisite neatness is requisite in everything connected with it. Still, as months are consumed in making very handsome pieces, the work turns dingy in spite of the lace-worker's best efforts. To remedy this it is sometimes dusted with white lead in powder, which turns dark at contact with gas or sulphur in a way to exasperate the wearer. Many attempts have been made to make Brussels lace away from Brussels - always, though, without success. Though the mechanical processes are strictly followed elsewhere, something in the air or water or soil of other countries prevents it from possessing the delicate softness peculiar to the Brussels fabric.

In Italy also, especially in Venice, which city is the earliest home of lace and from whence it was introduced into other countries, there are now many lace schools in full and active operation. The operatives are women, of all ages and sizes, from the soft-eyed girl of twelve to the gray-haired crone of sixty. Each worker sits on a low stool and holds a plump, square cushion on her lap. On this cushion is pinned a strip of paper marked with the pattern to be followed, and into this pattern the nimble-fingered worker sticks glass-headed pins, and twists her threads about them. From twenty to fifty shuttles hang from all sides of the cushion, which are being constantly thrown back and across with great rapidity in the formation of the pattern. The pins are withdrawn and replaced as the threads advance along the design. The process is so simple that it seems child's play, but the lace produced represents thousands of dollars. The simple patterns grow rapidly between the dexterous fingers of the women, but the fine and rare varieties evolve with a slow and proud dignity. The cost of some of the hand made thread used in the finer laces is enormous. It is spun from an especial kind of flax, and has been known to bring the extraordinary price of $2500 a pound. This lace is sold at fixed prices, being valued upon a stationary basis, varying from forty cents to $6.00 a yard. The women are paid from fourteen to twenty cents a day, their work being valued at a fixed scale of profit. If the fourteen cent woman consumes ten days in making a a yard of lace, this yard of fabric is sold for 82.00, which, of course includes expenses of tools, thread, house-rent, etc. These schools turn out a large product, the greater part of which finds its way to the United States.

Machine Lace. - Every kind of Pillow lace as well as Point lace, is now imitated by the loom, but the imitations of Point are not so perfect as those of the Pillow family. France, England and Switzerland manufacture them in large quantities, in silk, cotton and wool. Indeed machine nets and laces have not only superseded the cheaper productions of the Pillow, but have also added to the value of the rarer kinds of both Pillow and Point. Machine lace, more especially the curtain lace known as Nottingham, is now also being produced to some extent in this country, as well as silk lace.

Bobbinet was first made by machinery in 1768. The machine was an adaptation of the stocking loom to netting and was cumbrous and not very effective. In 1809, John Heathcote, the son of an English farmer invented the first machine to make true bobbinet with perfect six-sided holes. [See Bobbinet] It brought a great hue and cry about his ears from the hand-lace workers, who fancied they saw themselves thus reduced to beggary. In their anger they broke into the factory where the machines were first set up and made scrap iron and kindling wood of them. The only result was to drive the new manufacture to other and safer quarters. For long the secret of the machines' construction was most jealously guarded by English manufacturers. Not satisfied with letters patent they kept up a coast patrol to make sure that nobody took model or drawings to France. At last, though, they were outwitted. A discharged workman who had the plan of it in his mind, managed to get safe over the sea and built a machine in France. Thus far, all that could be produced by machinery was bobbinet, which served the hand-lace workers for grounds upon which to build their lace. The machine enormously cheapened the cost of producing bobbinet. For example, a piece of plain net made by hand, that in 1805 sold for $25 the yard, could after the invention of the machine be sold for just 25 cents. In 1837 the application of the Jacquard loom to bobbinet made machine-lace a reality. Since then it has gone from strength to strength, constantly improving in quality and decreasing in price. The art of making machine lace is a science of no small importance, and one which has been investigated by everyone who has made any important advances in the manufacture of lace, whether in the construction of machinery or its application and use in the production of almost endless varieties of groundwork and design. It has been the study of lace patentees from Heathcote, in 1809, down to the present time. It consists in a careful examination and study of the different classes of Pillow lace; ascertaining the number of threads used and their several courses or direction in the formation of every kind of mesh; the number and order of twists, plaits, weavings and crosses which are formed with each pair of threads; the fine-works, open-works, thick threads, points and purls, which go to make up the texture of each class - Mechlin, Brussels, Alencon, Valencienes, Lisle or Honiton. This information is necessary to be gained in order to be fully aware what is to be done by the machine, so that imitations, more or less perfect, may be produced. The lace-machine is so complicated it would be hopeless to convey any really intelligible idea of it without a voluminous description of all its parts. One or two points of chief importance may, however, remove any difficulty in understanding its general principles. In the loom, there are a series of warp threads placed straight up and down instead of horizontally, and about wide enough apart to admit of a silver quarter passing edgeways between them. Behind these threads is a corresponding row of flat bobbins, resting on a bolt-bar. These are so placed that with the first movement of the machine each bobbin, which carries its thread with it, passes between two of the warp threads, and is lodged in another and similar bolt-bar in front of the warp. But this front bolt-bar, besides a backward and forward motion, has another movement - called shogging - from right to left. When it receives a bobbin by its forward motion, it draws back, bringing the bobbin and thread through two of the upright warp threads. It then shogs or moves to one side, and goes forward again, taking the thread through the next two warp-threads and lodging the bobbin on the bolt-bar again, one distance beyond its last space. This it recovers by the next movement and it again passes through the first space, to be again received by the front bolt-bar. By these movements the bobbin-thread is twisted quite around one upright thread of the warp. Another movement then shifts the bobbin so that it will pass through the next pair of upright threads and so carry on its work, the warp threads moving at the same time. There are twice as many bobbins as there are threads of warp, each bolt-bar having a set which it exchanges with the other, and all being regulated with such nicety, that a width of lace is made in far less time than is required to write this short description. Almost any pattern of hand-made lace may be imitated by machine, each pattern depending upon the variations that can be given to movements of the flat, disc-like bobbins.

Many varieties of lace are manufactured by machinery that are not made by hand, while many are also made which partake of the more prominent features of different styles of hand-made goods.

Border lace is any sort made in long, narrow pieces having a footing on one side, the other edge usually being vandyked, purled, etc.; Vandyke lace is usually made of cream colored or black silk, in a combination of light and heavy scroll patterns, outlined by a glossy silken thread; Bridal lace is made with the ground wholly composed of brides or bars, without a reseau or net; Broadlace is a woolen variety made in bands about 4 inches wide, and used as an ornamental border to the upholstery of a carriage; Cadiz lace is a kind of needle point lace, considered as a variety of Brussels lace; Cartisane lace is a sort of expensive passamenterie, made of thin strips of parchment, covered with silk and gold thread. Chain lace is a variety of braid or passament so worked as to suggest links of a chain, made of colored silk and also of gold and silver thread. Cork lace signifies Irish lace in general, especially of the older sorts, made principally in the city of Cork, before the recent extension of the lace industry in Ireland. Cordover lace is merely a kind of filling used in the pattern of modern point lace. Cretan lace is a name given to an old lace made commonly of colored material, whether silk or linen. Crewel lace is a kind of edging made of worsted thread intended as a border or binding for garments. Crocket lace is the sort made by hand with a crochet hook, or of which the pattern is made in this way but applied to a bobbin or machine-made net. It resembles needle point, although not to be compared to the finer kinds of the latter. English point lace is a variety of bobbin lace of Flemish origin, made in the 18th century, and so-called " English" by English dealers in order to evade the law with regards to the tariff. At the present day it represents really the finest Brussels lace where needle-point sprigs are applied to Brussels bobbinet. False Valenciennes resembles Valenciennes but without the true reseau; also a general name for Valenciennes in Brussels. Flat point lace has reference to the sorts which have no raised work or embroidery in relief upon the surface. Flemish point lace is made in Flanders and is a needle point Brussels. HoIlie point lace is a needle lace worked in the middle ages. The word is a corruption of Holy point, and was used to denote church laces, whether formed of drawn or cut work, or with darned netting when the pattern of a lace was scriptural in subject or contained sacred emblems. Imitation lace is a term applied to machine-lace of any kind. In fineness the imitation often rivals the real. Its chief defect, however, is its mechanical regularity of pattern, which makes the designs lifeless and uninteresting. Jesuit lace is a modern needle-point variety made in Ireland; so-called from tradition concerning the introduction of this manufacture since the famine of 1846. Knotted lace is a name given to a fringe made of knotted threads. Macrame lace is its modern representative. Lille lace gets its name from Lille, France, and is remark-able for its clear and light ground, which is known as fond clare. It is the most beautiful of single thread grounds. Limerick lace, the most successful of Irish lace, is really not lace at all, but a kind of tambour work upon net and muslin. [See Tambour] Dalecarlian lace is made by the peasants of Dalecarlia, the patterns of which are ancient and traditional. Damascene lace is an imitation of Honiton, sometimes being united sprigs of real Honiton with filling of needlework. Darned lace is a name given to any sort of lace which has a netted ground, upon which the pattern is applied in needlework. Dutch lace is a thick and not very open lace, resembling a coarse Valenciennes, made in the Netherlands, generally by peasants. Mirecourt lace in the 17th century was a variety of Guipure, more delicate and thin in texture than other Guipure. At present it is an applique lace, made of sprigs of bobbin lace sewed upon various sorts of grounds. Oriental has a ground formed of fine Brussels net, upon which the pattern, usually of roses, fern leaves and vines is worked. The edge is scalloped and in most cases more heavily embroidered than in ordinary lace; Escurial lace has a mesh which is sometimes formed of large squares or diamonds, and again close and filmy fine. The designs are of roses, tulips, leaves, etc., outlined by a silken cord of glossy finish, a peculiarity which in all varieties distinguish Escurial from other hand-run laces-Spanish silk lace was originally a needle-point lace brought from the convents of Spain. The patterns are usually confined to simple flowers and leaves, made in close overshot or matted work. Spanish Guipure has a Guipure mesh, with Matlasse designs. Spanish overshot is formed over the pattern of a Matlasse lace, with the addition of loose threads worked over the top or the design. It is the cheapest of Spanish laces. Thread lace signifies the sorts made of linen thread, in contradistinction to silk and cotton laces. Point de Gene, or Point de Genoa, are machine imitations of the point de Venice and point de Genoa needle-point laces of Italy.

Gold lace is a sort of braid or gimp, used chiefly as a decoration for uniforms, liveries and some church costumes. Gold lace, or more properly gilt lace is a thin covering of gold applied to a surface of silver, which again has a foundation of silk. The silk threads for making this lace are wound round with gold wire so thickly as to conceal the silk; and the making of this gold wire is still more singular than the making of gold thread. In the first place, the refiner prepares a solid rod of silver, about an inch in thickness; he heats this rod, applies upon the surface a coating of gold leaf, burnishes this down and continues until the gold is about one-hundredth part of the thickness of the silver. Then the rod is subjected to a train of processes which brings it down to the condition of fine wire. It is then passed through holes in a steel plate, lessened step by step in diameter. The gold never deserts the silver, but adheres closely to it and shares all its mutations. It was one-hundredth part the thickness of the silver at the beginning, and it maintains the same ratio to the end. It has been calculated that gold on the very finest silver wire for gold lace is not more than one-third of one-millionth part of an inch in thickness; that is, not above one-tenth the thickness of ordinary gold leaf, such as dentists use.