This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
(Most, if not all, of these colorants are injurious and should therefore be used with extreme caution.)
To dye sausage red, certain tar dyestuffs are employed, especially the azo dyes, preference being given to the so-called genuine red. For this purpose about 100 parts of dyestuff are dissolved in 1,000 to 2,000 parts of hot water; when the solution is complete, add a likewise hot solution of 45 to 50 parts of boracic acid, whereupon the mixture should be stirred well for some time; then filter, allow to cool, and preserve in tightly closing bottles. It is absolutely necessary in using aniline colors to add a disinfectant to the dye-stuff solution, the object of which is, in case the sausage should commence to decompose, to prevent the decomposition azo dyestuff by the disengaged hydrogen. Instead of boracic acid, formalin may be used as a disinfectant. Of this formalin, 38 per cent, add about 25 to 30 parts to the cooled and filtered dye-stuff solution. This sausage color is used by adding about 1.5 to 2 tablespoonfuls of it to the preserving salt measured out for 100 kilos of sausage mass, stirring well. The sausage turns neither gray nor yellow on storing.
To produce a suitable, pretty yellow color, boil 100 parts of orlean or annatto with 75 parts of potassium carbonate in 1.5 to 2 liters of water, allow to cool, and filter after settling, whereupon 15 to 18 parts of boracic acid are added to give keeping qualities to the solution. According to another method, digest about 200 parts of orlean, 200 parts of potassium carbonate, and 100 parts of turmeric for 10 to 12 days in 1,500 to 2,000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol, filter, and keep in bottles. To 100,000 parts of milk to be made into cheese add 1.5 to 2 small spoonfuls of this dye, which imparts to the cheese a permanent and natural yellow appearance.
To obtain a handsome yellow color for cheese, such as is demanded for certain sorts, boil together 100 parts of annatto and 75 parts of potassium carbonate in from 1,500 to 2,000 parts of pure water; let it cool, stand it aside for a time, and filter, adding finally from 12 to 15 parts of boracic acid as a preservative. For coloring butter, there is in the trade a mixture of bicarbonate of soda with 12 per cent to 15 per cent of sodium chloride, to which is added from 1.5 per cent to 2 per cent of powdered turmeric.
For the coloring of butter there is in the market under the name of butter powder a mixture of sodium bicarbonate with 12 to 15 per cent of sodium chloride and 1.5 to 2 per cent of powdered turmeric; also a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, 1,500 parts; saffron surrogate, 8 parts; and salicylic acid, 2 parts. For the preparation of liquid butter color use a uniform solution of olive oil, 1,500 parts; powdered turmeric, 300 parts; orlean, 200 parts. The orlean is applied on a plate of glass or tin in a thin layer and allowed to dry perfectly, whereupon it is ground very fine and intimately mixed with the powdered turmeric. This mixture is stirred into the oil with digestion for several hours in the water bath. When a uniform, liquid mass has resulted, it is filtered hot through a linen filter with wide meshes. After cooling, the filtrate is filled into bottles. Fifty to 60 drops of this liquid color to 1.5 kilos of butter impart to the latter a handsome golden yellow shade.