This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Cocoa oil, 24 parts; soda lye, 38° Be., 12 parts; sand, finely sifted, 28 parts; cassia oil, .0100 parts; sassafras oil, .0100 parts.
When salicylic acid is used in soap it decomposes, as a rule, and an alkali salicylate is formed which the skin does not absorb. A German chemist claims to have overcome this defect by thoroughly eliminating all water from potash or soda soap, then mixing it with vaseline, heating the mixture, and incorporating free salicylic acid with the resulting mass. The absence of moisture prevents any decomposition of the salicylic acid.
Fish oil or other animal oil is stirred up with sulphuric acid, and then treated with water. After another stirring, the whole is left to settle, and separate into layers, whereupon the acid and water are drawn off, and caustic soda solution is stirred in with the oil. The finishing stage consists in stirring in refined mineral oil, magnesium chloride, borium chloride, and pure seal or whale oil, in succession.
Tallow, 30 parts; palm kernel oil, 270 parts; lye, 20°, 347.5 parts; potassium chloride solution, 20°, 37.5 parts. After everything has been boiled into a soap, crutch the following dye solution into it: Water, 5.5 parts; blue, red, or black, .0315 parts; water glass, 38°, 10 parts; and lye, 38°, 1.5 parts.
A good, common hard soap may be made from clean tallow or lard and caustic soda, without any very special skill in manipulation. The caustic soda indicated is a crude article which may now be obtained from wholesale druggists in quantities to suit, at a very moderate price. A lye of average strength is made by dissolving it in water in the proportion of about 2 pounds to the gallon. For the saponification of lara, a given qauantity of the grease is melted at a low heat, and 0.25 its weight of lye is then added in small portions with constant stirring; when incorporation has been thoroughly effected, another portion of lye equal to the first is added, as before, and the mixture kept at a gentle heat until saponification appears to be complete. If the soap does not readily separate from the liquid, more lye should be added, the soap being insoluble in strong lye. When separation has occurred, pour off the lye, add water to the mass, heat until dissolved, and again separate by the use of more strong lye or a strong solution of common salt. The latter part of the process is designed to purify the soap and may be omitted where only a cruder article is required. The soap is finally remelted on a water bath, kept at a gentle heat until as much water as possible is expelled, and then poured into frames or molds to set.
Parts by weight
Good laundry soap. 15
Heat the petroleum, wax, and alcohol on a water bath until they are well mixed, and dissolve in the mixture the soap cut in fine shavings. This may be used on man or beast for driving away vermin.
Wood tar........... 25 parts
Hebra's soap spirit. . . 75 parts
To wash fine silk stuffs, such as piece goods, ribbons, etc., employ a soap containing a certain amount of ox gall, a product that is not surpassed for the purpose. In making this soap the following directions will be found of advantage: Heat 1 pound of cocoanut oil to 100° P. in a copper kettle. While stirring vigorously add 0.5 pound of caustic soda lye of 30° Baumé. In a separate vessel heat 0.5 pound of white Venice turpentine, and stir this in the soap in the copper kettle. Cover the kettle well, and let it stand, mildly warmed for 4 hours, when the temperature can be again raised until the mass is quite hot and flows clear; then add the pound of ox gall to it. Now pulverize some good, perfectly dry grain soap, and stir in as much of it as will make the contents of the copper kettle so hard that it will yield slightly to the pressure of the fingers. From 1 to 2 pounds is all the grain soap required for the above quantity of gall soap. When cooled, cut out the soap and shape into bars. This is an indispensable adjunct to the dyer and cleaner, as it will not injure the most delicate color.