Bell-Flower, or Campanula, L. a genus of plants comprehending eighty species : of which, however, only nine are indigenous. The following are the principal :
1. The rotundifolia, or Round-leaved Bell-flower, winch grows on heaths, and the borders of fields ; with long narrow lanceolated leaves on the stem, but heart or kidney-shaped, and sometimes oval leaves close to the ground ; it produces blue or white flowers, in August and September. See Withering, 241 ; and Curtis, Lond.fasc, 4. t. 21.—Cattle and Sheep browse upon these flowers with avidity; and they are likewise useful in dyeing. The milky juice of the white flowers is said to impart a beautiful green colour, by the addition of alum. The juice of the blue flowers alone has been used for painting and writing; and Dampourney asserts, that with these flowers he dyed wool and cloth of a fine vi gogne colour, having previously immersed them in a properly diluted solution of bismuth,
2. The rapunatlus, or Rampion Bell-flower, with straight stalks two feet high, undulated leaves, those next the root short, lance-shaped, and nearly oval : its small blue or white flowers, which appear on the upper part of the stem, blow in July and August. See Withering, 242 ; and Eng/. Bot. t. 283.—Formerly the rampion was cultivated in gardens, for its roots, which were used in salads ; and though much neglected, it is often met with in a wild state, on fallows, and beside causeways ; especially near Croydon and Esher, in Surrey.
3. The latifolia, or Giant Bell-flower, with oval lance-siiaped leaves, a very simple cylindrical stem, solitary flowers (in August), and pendent seed : it grows in thickets and under hedges. See With. 243, and Engl. Bot. t. 302. The roots of this species are likewise an useful addition to salads.
4. The rapunculoides, or Creeping Bell-flower, with heart and fence-shaped leaves, a branchy stalk, pendent flowers, and reflected flower-cups. It grows in thickets, blows in August, but is extremely scarce, though it has formerly been found in some woods among yew-trees, in Oxfordshire ; and recently at Blair, in Scotland. The roots of this species are likewise esculent, and cattle are fond of its leaves.
5. The glomerata, or Clustered-Bell-flower, with angular stem's, and sessile flowers terminating in a head. It grows on high calcareous lands, and blossoms in July and August. See With. 344, and Engl. Bot. t. 90. Although bees eagerly frequent the flowers of this species, yet it should be carefully extirpated from meadows and fields, as being a pernicious food for cattle.