The fences employed for parks, and sometimes for gardens, are generally of paling ; which, if made of winter-fallen oak, will continue sound for many years. For thispurpose, the pales should be cleft thin, and the rails cut triangular, in order to prevent the wet from being" deposited on them. In parks where fallow-deer are kept, it will be sufficient if they be 61/2 feet huh; but where there are red deer, it will be requisite to make them at least one foot higher.
Various kinds of plants havebeen recommended tor constructing the Common fences, of which we shall point out the .principal : 1. The White-Thorn is the most proper for fences, as it grows quickly, is very durable, and makes a very handsome appearance. It thrives on any soil, where a ditch and a new bank are prepare 1 for its reception, unless the soil consist entirely of sand or gravel: it will nevertheless grow even in such situations, if the planting be succeeded by heavy rains. 2. Black-Thorn is another excellent shrub for a fence : it is, however, much inferior to the white-thorn, as its growth is not so Certain; arid, where it thrives, its roots spread, and are apt to run in too much upon the land. For dead hedges and mending open places, the bushes of this plant are superior even to the white-thorn; they are likewise less liable to be cropped by cattle. 3. Furze, to which we refer. 4. To these may be added the Holly, which is indeed preferable to either of the plants above-mentioned; for,though its growth is slower, and more un-. certain, yet where it succeeds, it amply compensates for the delay and expence incurred, by its thickness, height, and strength.
The best mode of making a fence with these trees is, to plant them with the quick or white-thorn, in the proportion of one of the former to four of the latter. Both will flourish; and, as the hollies increase in size, the' white-thorns may be pulled up : so that when the trees have attained their full growth, they will require the whole of the space Occupied by the thorns, and will make a most durable fence. If any vacancies should intervene, they may be easily closed, by bending down, and covering the lower branches with earth : thus, they will shoot forth in the ensuing year, and form a barrier impene-trable to cattle.
Beside these, alder, and even elder, make, in certain situations, excellent fences. If sticks or truncheons of the latter, from ten to twelve feet in length, be set in a sloping direction each way, so as' to form a kind of chequer-work, they will grow speedily, and con-tinue for several years. This plant is excellently adapted to watery places, as its lowest roots are conti-nually spreading, and thus prevent the banks on which they stand, from being undermined, or washed away by the current.
The last tree which w'e shall mention is the Horn-beam. It is chiefly used in Germany for the purpose of fencing lands; and is propagated from sets or slips, which are planted on a parapet of earth, with a ditch on each side, in such a direction that every two plants may intersect each other. The bark is then scraped off the place where they meet, and which is covered with hands of straw : in con-sequence of this operation, the two plants become conjoined, and put forth horizontal slanting shoots, forming a kind of palisade; which, if lopped annually, will render every part of the fence equally impene-trable to men and cattle. - See Hedges.