The fulling of cloths, etc. is performed by a kind of water-mill, thence called a fulling, or scouring-mill. - Without describing the me-chanise of this manufacturing pro-cess, we cannot ''omit to remark that urine is sometimes employed, as well as soap and fullers-earth, to prepare the stuffs for receiving the first impressions of the pestle. They are first steeped in urine, then in a solution of fullers'-earth and water, and lastly in soap, dissolved in hot water. Soap alone would fully answer this purpose, but it is too expensive, especially as, according to the present mode of dressing, fullers'-earth is of equal efficacy. Urine is certainly prejudicial, and ought entirely to be abandoned here, both on account of its disagreeable smell, and its sharp, saline properties, which frequently render the cloths dry and harsh. The scouring of cloth, however, is not the only object in full-ing it 5 the alternate pressure communicated by the pestles, or stampers, to the stuffs, occasions in its advanced stages an effe6t analogous to that produced upon hats in the operation of felling, mentioned p. 256. - Thus, the fibres of wool which compose one of the threads, whether of the warp or the woof, assume a progressive motion, first introducing themselves among those of the contiguous threads, then into those which follow, so that gradually all the threads, both of the warp and the woof, become completely felted. The cloth, after having by this process become contracted and shortened in its dimensions, partakes in a great measure of the nature of felt: hence it may be cut without being liable to un-ravel; and consequently there is* no necessity to hem its edges.— Farther, as the threads of both the warp and woof are more intimately combined, the web, which acquires a greater degree of thickness, likewise forms a warmer clothing.
The process of fulling stockings, caps, etc. is performed in a manner somewhat different from that in the mills ; namely, either with the feet or hands :, or a kind of rack or wooden machine, armed with teeth of the same materials ; or, which is still better, horses' or bullocks' teeth may be substituted. In this operation, urine, green soap, white soap, and fuilers'-earth are employed ; but the first of these ingredients, for the reasons before stated, is here also detrimental to the texture. Stockings manufactured in a loom, should be fulled with soap alone ; but, for dressing such as have been knit, earth may likewise be added.— Lastly, knit-worsted is by this process rendered less subject to run, if a stitch should happen to drop in the stockings.