Sarawak (Sar-ah'wak), a state in the northwest of Borneo, since 1888 a British protectorate. The Chinese Sea washes its north-west side; on the north-east is the protected state of Brunei; and on every other side it is surrounded by Dutch Borneo. Area 41,000 sq. m.; pop. 600,000. The coast-belt is in many parts low, the interior hilly, rising to close upon 8000 feet near the frontiers. The longest river, the Rajang, has a sinuous course of 350 miles, and is navigable for 150 miles. Antimony, quicksilver, gold, and coal are mined, and copper, diamonds, and manganese exist. Sago, pepper, gambier, gutta-percha, india-rubber, birds' nests, rattans, tea, coffee, and timber, are exported. The people consist principally of Malays, Chinese, and Dyaks. The chief town, Kuching (pop. 25,000), stands 20 miles up the Sarawak River. Sir James Brooke (1803-68), who became Rajah of Sarawak in 1841, was succeeded by his nephew, Sir C. J. Brooke, who, after greatly extending his territory, put it in 1888 under the protection of Britain. See Spencer St John, Life in the Forests of the Far East (1862); his Life of Sir James Brooke (1879); and Charles Brooke, Ten Years in Sarawak (1866).