Sardinia, an island of Italy, after Sicily the largest in the Mediterranean, lies 135 miles W. of the Tiber mouth, and immediately south of Corsica, being separated from it by the Strait of Bonifacio, 7 1/2 miles wide. It is 170 miles long from N. to S., and 75 miles broad; area, 9206 sq. m. The surface is generally mountainous, the highest point (6233 feet) is Gennargentu. The south-west corner is separated from the rest by the low alluvial plain of Campidano, at both extremities of which are extensive salt lagoons. Malaria prevails in the low-lying tracts; the higher parts are healthy. Sardinia has a fertile soil, valuable mines, and forests, and fisheries; but owing to conservatism, apathy, lack of enterprise, and imperfect means of communication, its resources are undeveloped. Of the total area about one-third is arable land, one-third pasture, and nearly one-third forest. The principal produce is wheat, barley, beans, potatoes, wine, olive-oil, oranges, lemons, tobacco, flax and hemp, cheese, butter, and wool. The growing of fruits and the breeding of the domestic animals are important industries. Besides being in ancient times the granary of Rome, Sardinia was renowned for its mineral wealth. At the present time some 12,000 persons are employed in extracting lead (with silver) and zinc, lignite, antimony, and manganese. Iron and copper also exist. Granite, marble, and clay for pottery are quarried. Salt is manufactured from sea-water. The centre and north of the island are chiefly covered with forests - oak, ilex, cork, and wild-olive - which yield timber, cork, bark for tanning, acorns, and charcoal. The seas (to Italian, not Sardinian, fishermen) yield large quantities of tunny, sardines, anchovy, and coral. There is some tanning and making of cigars, aerated waters, macaroni, flour, and spirits. Until the year 1828 Sardinia had no roads for wheeled vehicles, the Roman roads having gone to ruin centuries ago. Now there are good roads throughout the island; and they are supplemented by 350 miles of railway. The island has good ports - Cagliari (the capital) being the chief. The inhabitants are of mixed race, Spanish and Italian elements predominating. Pop. (1815) 352,867; (1881)682,000; (1904)811,036 - 87.15 to the sq. m. Education is in a very backward state. The two universities at Cagliari and Sassari are frequented by 260 students; .83 per cent. of the population are unable to read and write. The vendetta and brigandage were extremely prevalent, but have now almost ceased. The language is a mixture of Latin, Spanish, and Italian, but the dialects differ considerably; classical Italian is the official language. The moufflon or wild sheep, deer, and wild boar, are hunted. There are two provinces of Cagliari and Sassari. Some 3000 nuraghe or round towers, and many 'giant's graves,' are prehistoric or very ancient curiosities. See works by Tennant (1885), Tyndale (3 vols. 1849), and Edwardes (1889).