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The Better Homes Manual | by Blanche Halbert



In this Manual are assembled the best contemporary statements obtainable on home ownership and financing, the methods of keeping the cost of the house down, points to be considered in the buying or building of a home, the selection of the site, and the fitting of the house to its site, the determination of architectural style and consideration of essentials in planning as well as the choice of materials to be used and selection of equipment for lighting, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and refrigeration, and the finishing of floors and walls...

TitleThe Better Homes Manual
AuthorBlanche Halbert
PublisherBetter Homes In America, Inc
Year1931
Copyright1931, Better Homes In America, Inc
AmazonThe Better Homes Manual
The Better Homes Manual

The University Of Chicago Home Economics Series

Lydia J. Roberts, Editor

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO HOME ECONOMICS SERIES, published with the approval of the Board of Trustees of the University, is designed as a contribution to the teaching of home economics in schools, colleges, and universities. The books of the series cover in some measure the fields included in the home economics courses given at the University and may thus serve as texts in corresponding courses in other universities. Some are designed to present material in fields where home economics closely touches other lines of work, such as public health or certain phases of the social sciences; and some make available to the general reader, and especially to the educated home-maker, information often limited to the classroom.

Edited By Blanche Halbert, Research Director, Better Homes in America

The University Of Chicago Press Chicago Illinois
-Preface
By Ray Lyman Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior and President of Better Homes in America. Good public policy involves provision for informing the general public on the practical details of house archi...
-Introduction
By James Ford, Executive Director of Better Homes in America. The significance of the home is indicated by examination of the effects of environment upon human character and activities. Each individu...
-Part I. The Requirements For A Good Home. Chapter I. Home Ownership And Home Financing. Home Ownership
Buying or building a home requires the use of sound judgment in seeing that the personal needs of the family are best met with the funds available. It involves not only the carrying on of transactions...
-Home Ownership And Home Financing
And James S. Taylor, Chief of the Division of Building and Housing, U.S. Department of Commerce. The great majority of people have a strong desire to own their homes. Some, to be sure, are forced to ...
-Home Ownership And Home Financing. Continued
The Range Of Safe Expenditure It is a mistake to buy beyond one's ability to pay, for that usually results in the loss of the home or in a most discouraging struggle. The purchase should be safe; thu...
-Financing Problems - Saving, Borrowing And Paying Back
The man who has enough cash to pay in full for a home has no worries about financing. Most people, however, can pay only part of the price in cash and are obliged to borrow the rest. It must always be...
-Financing Problems - Saving, Borrowing And Paying Back. Part 2
Saving Required Most families who buy a home must pay for it out of their own savings. Usually it is desirable for them to possess, free from obligation, at least one-fifth, or 20 per cent, of the v...
-Financing Problems - Saving, Borrowing And Paying Back. Part 3
Speculation In Lots One of the most common ways in which savings are lost is through speculation in real estate. Buying a lot in an improved section when one is ready to build is far different from b...
-Financing Problems - Saving, Borrowing And Paying Back. Part 4
Lender Must Be Honest The lender, if unscrupulous, may encourage the purchase of an expensive piece of property when he is confident the buyer cannot meet the payments, so that he can foreclose the m...
-Financing Table
Table II recognizes the fact that families having the same annual income may not be able to devote the same amount toward the purchase of a home. A family, for example, with several small children and...
-Notes On Financing Table
The table will not apply to every single case, but does indicate about how expensive a home can usually be bought with a given income. It shows cash expenditures only and does not outline a complete ...
-Choosing A Home Financing Agency
In attaining home ownership most American families need some financial assistance. The amount which must be borrowed represents in some cases a relatively small but more often a large part of the outl...
-Three Groups Of Borrowers
The first embraces those who can supply in cash 50 per cent or more of the price of the home, and who can get the remainder on first mortgage2 from any of several different sources. The second includ...
-Life-Insurance Companies
Another source of funds for home buyers in the first group is the life-insurance company. Prior to the war most of the larger companies did not make housing loans to any considerable extent, preferrin...
-Savings Banks
A third lending agency, which often lends somewhat more than the insurance company, is the savings bank. The type known as mutual savings banks, found principally in the East, invest heavily in mortga...
-Trust Companies
A fourth source of funds for families in the group under discussion is the trust company. In addition to large savings deposits, these institutions have trust funds which are available for real-estate...
-Mortgage Companies
In most of the larger communities mortgage companies are an important factor in home financing. There are two classes of such companies-those lending on first, or senior, mortgages and those lending o...
-Private Investors
Another group of lenders is made up of private investors. Unorganized and operating separately, their practices are, of course, even less standardized than those of mortgage companies. Frequently they...
-National Banks
National banks and many of the other commercial banks have not been lending on real estate to any considerable extent, partly because of restrictive federal and state laws. They have large savings res...
-Building And Loan Associations
The building and loan association is an important financing source for families in this group. These organizations make a practice of lending considerably more than half the property value where such ...
-Second Mortgage Borrowing
In communities having no building and loan associations and in those where the associations and other agencies are unwilling to supply on first mortgage from 60 to 75 per cent of the amount needed to ...
-The Land Contract
Another, and a more widely used, financing plan for home buyers in the third group is founded on the land contract. This instrument is most popular in the Middle Western States. It is simply an agreem...
-Building And Loan Amortization
Although for generations the building and loan associations of the country have been lending funds for home buying and home building on a scientific and widely known monthly repayment basis, there is ...
-Building And Loan Amortization. Continued
The family contemplating the purchase of a home is vitally interested in knowing what part of its monthly payment is to be applied toward increasing its equity in the property. After considering taxes...
-Maintenance Costs And Other Expenses In Home Owning
The actual money that is used for building or buying a home is not the only cost in home financing. Every home requires certain expenditures for repair and upkeep. In addition there are taxes, insuran...
-When Is Home Ownership Inadvisable?
Home ownership is without doubt desirable for the great majority of families. There are families, however, whose incomes will not permit them to finance their homes with safety, and families whose occ...
-Home Ownership And The Wage Earner
In depressions of the past, the building industry has often been an early help toward recovery. In 1921 construction took the lead toward an upward movement and started to advance before industrial pr...
-Chapter II. The Cost Of The House And Methods Of Reducing It What Do Houses Cost?
Good houses cost more than many families can afford. Although housing specialists for a number of years have been making recommendations and suggestions for the reduction of house costs, many of which...
-Reducing The Cost Of Houses
Many suggestions have been made for reducing the cost of houses - some of these have been actually tried out. The most important of the suggested methods are mentioned on pages 51-52 of this chapter. ...
-Elimination Of Waste In Home Building And Home Financing
There are large wastes in the building industry which could be eliminated by more efficient organization. The report of the committee on waste of the Federated Engineering Societies rated the building...
-Reducing The Cost Of The House By The Use Of Factory-Made Parts
As an engineer who has spent thirty years studying building, and who has passed through the various stages of thought as applied to the workman's home, I have come to a conclusion which will strike th...
-Reducing Costs By Standardization Of Parts
The standardization of all parts which go to make up the completed house, so that the different kinds may be interchangeable among themselves, is a very important element of economy in building..... ...
-Other Opinions On Reducing The Cost Of Houses
Most of the effort thus far made towards reducing the cost of houses has taken the direction of seeking to reduce the cost of the shell of the house - as distinguished from the things that go into the...
-Fifty Ways To Lower Home-Building Costs
There are only two ways to erect your home at less expense. The first is to get a contractor who will agree to build your home as you want it, without reducing qualities, at a lower price. The second ...
-Omitting The Cellar To Cut Building Costs
The millions of dollars invested in the cellars under American homes have been described as buried treasure. It has been estimated that over two billion dollars have been spent in cellar constructio...
-Methods Of Reducing Costs
Many suggestions have been made for reducing the cost of houses. Most methods, however, have not been sufficiently tried out to determine their importance as factors for reducing costs. The best known...
-Chapter III. The Home Site. 1. Selecting The Home Site. Property Considerations In Selecting The Home Site
And James S. Taylor, Chief Of The Division Of Building And Housing, U.S. Department Of Commerce. Basis For The Choice One thing that a man should never forget when he is buying a home is that the ...
-Property Considerations In Selecting The Home Site. Part 2
Specific Location Within districts that meet the family's needs as to general location, the task of choosing a site may be made easier if the points that affect the price or desirability are kept in ...
-Property Considerations In Selecting The Home Site. Part 3
Checking Property Values A fair appraisal of the house and lot should be obtained from a disinterested third person. The intelligent man usually wants a better guide than the price asked by the selle...
-Thirty Things To Buy Besides "Frontage"
If you want to base your home-building project on solid ground, literally as well as figuratively, you should look beneath the surface of the real estate deal - figuratively as well as literally! ...
-2. Selecting the House for the Building Site and Its Proper Placement. The Building Site Dictates The Architectural Style
The happy combinations of house and site, examples of which we all can recall, are very seldom just happen so's. They are the result of someone's careful analysis and study. The designer received an...
-Fitting Your House To Its Site
To build the house is simple, to create the setting is from difficult to impossible; and in all cases expensive and out of proportion to the cost of the house. The natural setting should be preserved ...
-Architecture And Landscape Architecture Should Be Interdependent
Architecture and landscape architecture have, down through the ages, gone hand in hand. How close this association has been, has not generally been well understood in America or, if understood, not we...
-Consider The Home Grounds Before Placing The House On The Lot
The position of the house on the lot is of primary importance. It was the custom in Colonial days to build houses very close to the street, thus conserving all possible space in rear for flower and ve...
-Placement For Sunshine
Throughout the seven thousand years of known human history, between the tropic of Cancer and the sixtieth northern parallel the vanguard of human progress has ever been found. Notice the fortieth para...
-References. Selecting The Home Site
1. Selecting The Home Site Embury, Aymar II. The Livable House. New York: Moffat Yard & Co., 1917. Requisites in considering the selection of site, buying the land, searching the title (pp. 1-22). ...
-Chapter IV. Architecture And Architectural Style. 1. What Architecture Really Is
The purpose of this chapter is to include for consideration and study those essential factors which influence architectural design. In so brief a space only principles can be stated but by study of th...
-The Meaning Of The Factors Of Composition
According to the late Professor Gaudet, architecture may be defined as the art and science of building. The average person knows practically nothing about either. Most of the human family gives but a ...
-Beauty In Architecture
Less than a century ago, John Ruskin set everyone thinking freshly about architecture. He discovered that buildings were alive; every stone had a tongue, and every tongue could tell a story. Many of u...
-The Use Of Materials In Architecture
All the great architectural forms were bound up, in their origin, with certain materials; and they never completely escape this limitation. The quarry gives us stone, the mine metals, the forest wood,...
-2. Architectural Style. Characteristics Of English Style
.... Most of the large houses in England which date from 1725 or later, and a very great proportion of the smaller houses in the cities or suburban English villages, were designed in the Renaissance o...
-Characteristics Of Italian Style
Taking up ... . Italian, the style which is perhaps of all the most difficult to translate into terms suitable to the conditions existing throughout the North, East, and West of the United States, we ...
-What Makes Colonial - Colonial?
When the Pilgrims first came to New England they did not build log cabins. Modern research shows that this form of construction was typical only of a later period - after the Revolution, when the firs...
-The Dutch Colonial
.... Originally the type rose only a story-and-a-half, and the stories were low, too. There were four rooms on the ground floor, two on each side of a fairly narrow hall, and two big chambers upstairs...
-The Dutch New Yorkers
It is incorrect to assume that the Dutch New Yorkers were monopolists of the curb or gambrel roof. They never built the high-peaked gables typical of early New England dwellings. At first they covered...
-None Really Dutch
How can the modern builder correct this severe defect? Only by using the services of a skilled and sensitive architect. There are four devices by means of which the Dutch Colonial style can be adapted...
-The Evolution Of The Spanish House
That variety of architecture which the world knows as Spanish goes back in history a good many centuries. Indeed the beginnings that gave rise to architectural expression in Spain were similar in ch...
-The Evolution Of The Spanish House. Continued
What Makes Spanish - Spanish? Terrific heat, a burnt and barren landscape, and insects make it impossible to enjoy nature out-of-doors in most parts of Spain. So the Spaniards try to bring nature ins...
-The Use Of Style In Architecture Of Today
For many years it has been the custom of architects in this country in solving their modern problems of design to seek inspiration (to put it mildly) from the styles and periods of the past. During th...
-The Future Of Modernism
The architects of the country seem to be divided in their opinion of the lasting influence of modernism in architecture. However, Thomas E. Tallmadge, in his article Will This Modernism Last?1 state...
-3. Design of Small Houses. Present-Day Small-House Architecture
American domestic architecture is on the mend. The more expensive houses are usually designed by architects who specialize in that kind of work, and are acknowledged to be the best in the world. More ...
-Architectural Design And Sound Construction
This article concerns four propositions: First, that most of the houses which are still being built in America are needlessly inconvenient and ugly and that there is great waste from too rapid depreci...
-4. The Architect The Duties Of The Architect
The employment of a professional adviser has been proved of value both economically and aesthetically. Financially, the architect should be able to save his fee to the owner by suggesting economies i...
-References. I. History Of Architecture And General Information
American Institute of Architects (Committee on Education). The Significance of the Fine Arts. Boston: Marshall Jones Co.. 1926. General information on architecture (pp. 183-242). Barman, Christian. ...
-References. 2. Architectural Style
Architects' Small House Service Bureau, Inc. Colonial Homes; English Homes; Spanish Homes; Modern American Homes. Minneapolis: The Bureau, 1930. Sixteen-page pamphlets: House designs and plans. Archi...
-References. 3. Illustrations For Study Of Design
Cheney, Sheldon. The New World Architecture. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1930. Hubbell, Lucy Embury (ed.). The Book of Little Houses. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1927. Excellent i...
-Chapter V. House-Planning Essentials The Plan Of The House
A competent architect should be capable not only of producing an artistic and pleasing exterior design suitable for its particular site but he should be able also to develop a convenient, attractive, ...
-What Is Good Planning?
A well-planned home is a home so thought out and so put together that the things that have to be done may be done with the least possible irritation and monotony. At the same time the well-planned hom...
-Planning The Small Home
.... It is quite extraordinary to note that in spite of a general apathy toward things artistic, we are really making steady progress. Homes all over the country are getting better and better in suita...
-Considerations In Planning The Various Rooms
Living Room 1. A rectangular-shaped room is more desirable than a square one as it provides for a more convenient and pleasing furniture arrangement. 2. Plan for cross-ventilation, for sunshine, and...
-The Plan Service Of The Architects' Small House Service Bureau
Skilful designing and planning of small houses has recently been made available to all American home builders. Until this past decade few but the well-to-do have had access to the expert service of pr...
-Blueprints
To some people blueprints are puzzles so intricate or in such strange language that, rather than attempt to find any order within the chaos that the many lines and symbols present to them, they leave ...
-The Value Of Specifications To The Owner
Plans, elevations, details, and specifications - what do they portray to the individual who is about to build? What relation are they to the venture that is to be the most thrilling and important unde...
-Planning And Equipping The Home For Children
If we are to have social progress, children must be better endowed or better trained than their parents. This means that opportunities for good health and for physical, intellectual and moral growth m...
-References. Essentials Of House-Planning
1. General Information On Essentials Of House-Planning Chandler, Joseph Everett. The Colonial House. New York: Robert M. Mc-Bride & Co., 1924. Information on planning Colonial houses. Ford, James. ...
-Chapter VI. Common Building Materials And Construction Practices. 1. The Uses Of Common Building Materials. The Importance Of Good Building And The Uses Of Materials
Whatever style of house may be chosen and whatever its magnificence or simplicity, the first essential is to build well and to be free from the annoyances and unnecessary expenses which may follow the...
-Use Of Wood In House Construction
Selecting a suitable wood for any building use, no matter in what section of the country it is to be used, affords an opportunity for an extremely wide choice of species and grades. How to restrict th...
-Use Of Wood In House Construction. Part 2
Grading In 1925 under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Commerce the lumber industry after several years' deliberation adopted simplified practices published as American Lumber Standards. These ...
-Use Of Wood In House Construction. Part 3
Grade-Marking The question arises, naturally, how to recognize any grade of lumber after you have ordered it. The answer is grade marking. This plan, developed largely through the efforts of the Na...
-Building Brick
In this country, in recent years, there has been a revival of interest in the architectural details and history of many of the old brick buildings, and it is not infrequent for architects to specify o...
-Hollow Tile And Cement Materials
The advantages of hollow tiles for building purposes are so obvious that their growing popularity is in no way surprising. The air spaces in the tiles form a protection against damp, and against heat ...
-Stucco
Stucco is a cement plaster, consisting of cement and sand, or cement, sand and lime, mixed in varying proportions and applied to the outside of a building either for decoration, or protection, or both...
-Cement And Concrete
Portland cement is made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay (or similar materials) in a kiln to such a temperature that fusion takes place and clinkers are produced. These clinkers are ground t...
-Stucco Finishes
A) Classes The finish coats of stucco may be divided into three general groups according to the texture and method of application. These are, first, dash finishes of the wet and dry type; second, the...
-Stucco Finishes. Continued
E) Textures In order to obtain finishes of a pleasing texture and to avoid the monotony of the dashes and the difficulties of execution of the float finishes, a number of finishes have been developed...
-Fundamental Requirements Of Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, water and inert materials put in place in a plastic condition but hardening soon after due to the process known as the hydration of the cement. Although concr...
-Roofing Materials
When it comes to choosing a roof the material may not, necessarily, depend upon the wall material or the style of the house. You may have such a keen preference for a certain kind of roof that you wil...
-Insulation
Thermal insulation is concerned with the problem of reducing the transfer of heat from one region to another. The physical principles involved in the subject of insulation are thus identical with thos...
-Insulation. Part 2
2. Convection The transfer of heat in a liquid or gas is usually complicated by other factors besides conduction. Conduction is always present, but the heat transfer is ordinarily greatly increased b...
-Insulation. Part 3
Insulating Materials A thermal insulator is essentially a material having a large percentage of relatively small voids containing air. Little, if any, convection can take place within such a material...
-Insulation. Part 4
Insulation of Buildings From the point of view of insulation only, the most important question is the thickness of insulating material to be applied, rather than what material to select, provided the...
-Insulation. Part 5
It should be borne in mind that any calculations dependent on experimental values of air leakage around windows are subject to great uncertainty on account of the variability of the factors involved. ...
-Interior Woodwork
Interior woodwork should be the result of accurate millwork, painstaking carpentry and careful selection of wood. There is a comfort, a richness to the home warmly ornamented with wood that no tapestr...
-The Use Of Wood As Finish-Flooring Materials
So far as houses are concerned the commonest floor is of wood. Let us take that one first. We can have wooden floors of hard wood - oak, maple, birch, and beech. Or we can have soft wood - pine, hemlo...
-Other Flooring Materials
The foundation of a room, the most used part of the building, the basis for all decorative treatment - that is the floor. In days gone by, floors were made almost entirely of wood, ends being pegged ...
-Wall Plaster And Paint
Excellent information on kinds of plastering, furring, function of lath and kinds of lath, plastering materials, mixing and application, decorative features of plaster, causes of cracks, softness and ...
-New Building Materials
During the past ten or fifteen years many new materials and better uses of old ones have been brought to the attention of the public. Through research and experimentation hundreds of new materials hav...
-New Building Materials. Continued
In Heat-Proofing Here is opened a possibility that ten years ago was nonexistent: The heat-proofing of a house for economy of fuel in the winter and the keeping out of summer heat, but more vitally f...
-2. Good Construction Practices. Some Of The Essentials For Good Construction
Since the amount that a family can afford to pay for a house is limited, every detail of the house deserves consideration with respect to the return in service or satisfaction from the expenditure inv...
-Principles Of Good Construction Practice
[The nineteen drawings, showing construction practice, which follow, have been prepared by Arthur Holden and Associates.] The following series of drawings have been prepared solely for the purpose of...
-3. Jerry Building. What Makes A Cheap House?
Everyone knows the difference between inexpensiveness that is arrived at by careful selection of sound materials yet without extravagance, and cheapness by which low costs are materialized through the...
-What Makes A Cheap House? Part 2
And that brings us to the real point of the story. Here are some of the things that will not be supplied at the cheap price. And here also are some of the things that happen to that flimsy constructio...
-Forty Reasons Why Walls And Ceilings Crack
Everyone is familiar with cracked walls and ceilings. Sometimes the reasons for the cracks are evident to everyone, but at others the reasons are not so plain to be seen. Sometimes the materials used ...
-4. Building in Winter. Winter Construction
With due precautions and proper equipment nearly all construction work can be carried on in winter and at no great difference in cost. The owner may often profit by saving interest on his investment a...
-Direct And Indirect Saving By Winter Construction
The contractor who is faced with the possibility of continuing operations during the winter months should ponder on the following statements issued by the New York Building Congress: 1. The direct ad...
-5. The Contractor. Duties Of The Contractor
The man who is paid to construct the building, whether an old-fashioned craftsman or a soulless corporation, is referred to as the Contractor, and it should be obvious that the more experienced, relia...
-Subcontractors
In the erection of the average house many trades take part. If it is a simple wooden cottage in the country, the local carpenter and handy man is usually competent to do the entire work, with the assi...
-Supervision
The architect's duties require him to follow the progress of the work from the first excavation till the last workman is out of the house, and the owner should also keep in close touch. Neglect of the...
-References. Building Materials And Construction Practices
1. General Information On Building Materials And Construction Practices Churchill, Allen L., and Wickenden, Leonard. The House-Owner's Book. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1928. Brief discussion of b...
-References. Building Materials And Construction Practices. Part 2
2. Wood And Lumber Holtman, Dudley F. Wood Construction. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1929. Factors affecting use of wood in construction (pp. 1-45); principal woods used in construction (pp. 115...
-References. Building Materials And Construction Practices. Part 3
5. Miscellaneous Information Betts, M. C., and Miller, T. A. H. Rammed Earth Walls for Building. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Farmers' Bull. 1500. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1926. Pp. 26. ...
-Chapter VII. Home Lighting Requirements For Good Home Lighting
No hard and fast rules can be laid down as to what represents the best practice in lighting the various rooms in the home; there are, however, certain fundamentals which should be observed in order to...
-Living Room
(1) Requirements Whether it is called the living room, parlor, library or den the lighting of this room should receive special attention since this is where the social life of the home is centered. T...
-Dining Room
(1) Requirements In the dining room the requirements to be met are particularly definite. a) Good illumination on the table itself. b) Soft but adequate illumination on the faces of the diners. c)...
-Kitchen
(1) Requirements Good, general illumination of daylight qualities is required throughout the kitchen, because of the wide variety of work that is done.1 (2) Approved Practice The choice of fixtures...
-Bedroom
(1) Requirements A moderate intensity of general illumination throughout the room with higher intensity of local lighting at certain desired points. 1 The various work surfaces also should be well l...
-Bathroom
(1) Requirements For the bathroom of average size the lighting at the mirror is the chief problem. (2) Approved Practice The proper way to light a bathroom is by two wall brackets, one on each side...
-Improving Old Installations
One of the principal reasons why the light is so bad in many homes is that no change has been made in the original installation to keep pace with the rapid advancement in lighting practice. This is pa...
-House Wiring And Lighting
If you intend to wire your new or present home and you wish to secure a maximum of convenience and satisfaction from the use of electricity, you must look not only to your present but to your future n...
-Minimum Wiring Standards
Outside Entrances One ceiling or one side outlet. One single-pole switch. Porches One ceiling or one side outlet. One single-pole switch. One convenience outlet, 18 in. from floor, if floor area ...
-Safeguarding Vision In Lighting The Home
There is plenty of evidence that good lighting aids vision and is an economic asset. It should be observed that in most cases good lighting costs no more than bad lighting. If we take into account the...
-What Home-Owners Should Know About Electric Systems
Every year electricity is becoming more and more an integral part of our homes, making our living easier and adding to our pleasures. And yet, as obvious as this is, the average home-owner is less inf...
-Chapter VIII. Heating, Ventilation, And Humidity. 1. Types of Heating Systems. The Home-Heating System
.... It is amazing how completely the home-owners of this country regard the heating plant as something entirely separate and distinct from the house in which it is to be placed, and of which it is to...
-The Home-Heating System. Part 2
3. Direct and indirect systems There are two general types of heating systems in use today, known as the direct and the indirect. The former (Fig. 46) includes ordinary stoves and the more modern and...
-The Home-Heating System. Part 3
5. Regulation, control, and flexibility The effect of type of heating system on regulation and control of air temperatures throughout the house, as well as on the flexibility and responsiveness of th...
-Progress In Heating
As late as 1926 a review of the heating industry for the previous fifty years, published in a prominent American architectural journal, had not one word to say about tubular radiation, light-w...
-The Panel Heating System
There has recently been developed in England, and now first introduced into this country in the British Embassy in Washington, a new type of patented heating system consisting of concealed hot-water p...
-Radiators
In the heating system employing water, steam or vapor as a heating medium, the boiler performs two functions - it contains the combustion chamber, wherein the fuel is combusted, and its other function...
-The Painting Of Steam And Hot-Water Radiators
For a number of years this subject has received considerable attention from the public, and it is apparent that the essential facts have not always been understood. The object of this note is to suppl...
-The Painting Of Steam And Hot-Water Radiators. Continued
In the following applications, the numerical values given above will be used as if they were exact, but it must be understood that they are merely representative and would not apply exactly to any par...
-Auxiliary Heating By Electricity
The problem of maintaining warmth and comfort in the home on the cool days before and after the regular heating season is a troublesome one to many home-owners. How often, at such times, is one cold e...
-2. Air Temperature, Ventilation, and Relative Humidity. What Is A Comfortable Temperature?
The American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers, the Public Health Service, and the United States Bureau of Mines have cooperated in making intensive investigations to determine the kind of ...
-Ventilation And Humidity
Perhaps the greatest obstacle to the proper ventilation of the home is the lack of knowledge of the exact nature of the atmospheric conditions required to produce the desired effect. Health officers a...
-Condensation
One of the inconveniences that results from the recommended relative humidity for comfort and health is condensation. Mr. Howard T. Fisher discusses remedies for condensation. He states in the followi...
-Chapter IX. Plumbing. Plumbing Terms
This chapter is not intended to give the reader a scientific knowledge of plumbing or of the mechanical operation of plumbing equipment but to indicate and emphasize those essentials and principles of...
-Plumbing Essentials
.... What can an architect say that will help the small home builder to get a bounteous supply of water where he wants it, so that he will not have to think of that part of the plumbing system again? ...
-The Importance Of Selecting Good Plumbing Equipment
With the increased appreciation of the need for adequate plumbing equipment has come an increase in the variety of styles and types of fixtures available. This has had the unfortunate effect of confus...
-Progress In Fixture Design And Materials
Extensive progress has been made in the use of materials for plumbing fixtures and equipment. Sanitation doubtless is the greatest consideration but comfort, labor-saving, and attractiveness are other...
-Faucets
Freedom from repairs - this is the ideal toward which the plumbing brass industry has been striving. Designers have done their utmost to attain simplicity and efficiency in the mechanical parts of the...
-Plumbing And Health
A subcommittee on plumbing was appointed in 1921 under the Building Code Committee of the United States Department of Commerce. The purpose of this committee was to investigate the underlying principl...
-Chapter X. Refrigeration Electric And Gas Refrigerators
There are two general types of refrigerating systems, the compression and the absorption type. In the usual compression type a small compressor, operated by an electric motor, is used to compress the ...
-Refrigeration Electric And Gas Refrigerators. Continued
Short-time tests of refrigerating machines unfortunately furnish only incomplete information as to their relative merits. Such a test may disclose obvious defects and will readily show the power or ga...
-Electric Refrigeration, Refrigerants, And The Cabinet
Electrical refrigeration for the home has made such rapid progress and has so much of merit that it is the subject of keen interest to progressive housekeepers. To those who wish to investigate furthe...
-Electric Refrigeration, Refrigerants, And The Cabinet. Part 2
Suggestions For Installation Where people own their homes, it is usually desirable to install the machine in the basement or some other out-of-the-way place where the sound and vibration will be less...
-The Gas-Fired Refrigerator
Let us first consider what refrigeration is. Cold is merely the absence of heat, and any means of absorbing heat which will lower the temperature to between 40 and 500 will give us the refrigeration...
-Ice Refrigeration And The Ice Cabinet
While ice, for many years, has been an indispensable article in the good conduct of households, only recently has its efficient utilization received serious attention. Like the electric current and ga...
-Chapter XI. Wall And Floor Finishes And Coverings. 1. The Various Kinds Of Wall Finish. Backgrounds
Plain flat-tone2 paints, tints, wallpapers and commercial wall oilcloths in a cloudy, allover3 pattern make the best backgrounds. For rooms facing north, the best colors are the yellows, ranging from ...
-Finishes For Rough And Smooth Plastered Walls
Color, tone, and texture are the elements of the background treatment. A familiar principle in their use is that the walls should be lighter than the floor and darker than the ceiling. This customary ...
-Plaster Walls And Painted Finishes
Plaster walls may be varied by two means, texture and color, and with the possible variations of these two qualities many different effects are attainable. In many rooms the severity of plain plaster ...
-Plaster Walls And Painted Finishes. Continued
Pargeting An attractive possibility in adding a decorative note to plaster walls in modern non-period rooms is the use of large figures, small patterns in relief, usually arranged unconventionally in...
-Other Treatments For Smooth Plastered Walls
A decorative treatment may be given to smooth plaster walls by paneling. These panels may be made of wood or of plaster molding. Common picture molding often is used, and provides an inexpensive and e...
-Plastic Paint
Plastic paint has the same surface appearance as the old cementitious materials and is just as permanent. It is, however, far easier to apply. Plastic paint will cover any surface that can be successf...
-Wallpaper And Fabricated Materials
Wallpaper long has been known as a desirable wall covering. There are many excellent reproductions of Early American and Colonial papers available at moderate cost - printed in attractive color and co...
-New Wall Finishes And Decoration
With all the variety of modern materials available for wall covering, choice among them rests entirely with the kind of house you have, or the kind of room, which may be anything from Elizabethan to u...
-Paneled Walls Of Wood
One of the basic principles in all the arts is that any composition must have unity; that is, the parts must seem to belong together to form one thing. A building may be unified by virtue of being one...
-Woodwork Finishes
For unity's sake in the modern house where the rooms may so easily be thrown together by the use of the ever charming French doors, or open doorways, the woodwork in all the rooms on each floor, espec...
-Staining And Finishing
The quality and grain of the wood should be enriched and strengthened by staining. This is most important as there is not always the proper depth to the natural wood color. Very interesting effects ca...
-Painted And Enameled Woodwork. Choice Of Color
For some time white was most favored, but now the range of choice has widened to include ivory, tan, sand, putty, and many tones of gray. Unconsciously white surfaces are often a strain on both eyes a...
-Factors To Consider Before Choosing Wall Color
Exposure And Number Of Windows In south rooms which have many windows and are sunshiny and light, cool colors, grayed in intensity and medium in value, may be used to soften the light. North rooms, ...
-Floor Finishes
New wood floors may be finished in a variety of ways, depending partly on the kind of wood and partly on individual preference. Wood finishers themselves often disagree about the best method of treati...
-Staining
Stains are used on floors to bring out the grain of the wood, or to make them harmonize in color with other woodwork or with furnishings, or to give certain softwoods tones similar to hardwoods. Oil ...
-Filling
Porous woods, such as oak and ash, take a smoother and more durable finish if a good paste filler is rubbed into them before the varnish, wax, or shellac is applied. Maple, pine, and other nonporous w...
-Varnishing
Varnish gives floors a hard, smooth, glossy finish, and is easy to apply and to clean. Under hard usage, however, it is likely to wear off, leaving patches of bare wood that remain unsightly even afte...
-Waxing
Waxing is considered by many the most attractive and practicable finish for hardwood floors. It preserves the natural color of the wood, brings out the beauty of the grain, and is easily revived and r...
-Oiling
Oiling is a rather common and economical way of finishing kitchen, pantry, bathroom, and porch floors and is by many considered more satisfactory for pine floors than varnishing. Oil is easy to apply,...
-Painting
Paint is very commonly used on softwood floors, but is not a very durable finish, and worn places can seldom be satisfactorily patched. Painted floors are, however, easy to clean, for the paint forms...
-Types Of Rugs
Carpets were originally made by hand, now the majority of them are woven on power looms. Brussels, Wilton, Velvet and Axminster are the principal kinds. There are also machine-made Oriental, ingrain, ...
-Types Of Linoleum And Cork Composition. Floor Coverings
Resilient flooring materials are the outgrowth of a definite need for a suitable and economical floor over wood, concrete and other hard floor surfaces, and for a material which can be easily applied ...
-Floor Coverings. Cork Composition Flooring
In this type of flooring ground cork is a principal ingredient. The cork is pulverized almost to the fineness of flour and is mixed with oxidized linseed oil and various gums, fillers and pigments. Th...
-Cork Carpet
Though frequently classified with linoleum, cork carpet differs somewhat from both cork tiles and linoleums. It is composed of granulated cork using a different proportion of cork and linseed oil from...
-Floor Coverings Summary
Paints, tints, wallpaper, commercial fabrics, and wood paneling are commonly used for wall finishes and coverings. Plaster is finished both with rough and smooth finishes. Rough finish should be suita...
-References. Finishes And Coverings
1. Wall Finishes And Coverings Ackerman, Phyllis. Wallpaper, Its History, Design and Use. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1923. DeWolfe, Elsie. The House in Good Taste. New York: Century Co., 191...
-Chapter XII. Essentials In Home Furnishing. Furniture And Architecture
In an age of standardization we have not yet standardized good taste. We are all still free to exercise our own opinions as to what is good and what is bad in art. While harmony is the basis of design...
-Principles Of Good Furniture Making
The ability to recognize good furniture comes from an understanding of the elements and principles which are at the bottom of good furniture making..... While we still adhere to the best traditions o...
-Principles Of Good Furniture Making. Part 2
Curing The Woods The furniture that you put into your house should be made by firms adequately equipped with the proper scientific apparatus for curing the woods. A poorly cured piece of wood will sh...
-Principles Of Good Furniture Making. Part 3
Joinery One of the most important points in the construction of good furniture is the way the different joints are made, as careful workmanship here is absolutely essential if the piece is to last an...
-Advantages And Disadvantages Of Both Veneer And Solid Furniture Construction
The advantages of veneered construction as compared with solid construction may be summed up as follows: 1. A ply-wood panel is stronger, in some respects, than a single board of the same thickness. ...
-Important Considerations In Furniture Selection And Arrangement
Always consider the spaces in rooms before furniture is selected or you may awaken to the fact that the beautiful things selected do not fit in. After the necessary articles have been chosen, the big...
-Window Treatment
Glass curtains and draperies both are of importance in obtaining the desired results in interior decoration. By regulating light, framing a view, accentuating color, they will add to the beauty of the...
-The Importance Of Color In House Furnishing
Color is becoming more and more important in both house furnishing and equipment, and it is now daringly used in furniture, upholstery materials, draperies, bath and kitchen equipment, and even in sma...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For The Seven-Room House. The Hall
The first impression of a house and its occupants comes as one enters the front door into the hall. Thus, nowhere in the entire house is it more important to strike the right keynote in furnishings an...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For The Living Room
As the living room is the gathering place for family and friends, it may well be considered the most important room in the house. It should take its keynote for decoration from the hall. If there is a...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For The Dining Room
The dining room should be one of the most cheerful and inspiring rooms of the house. It is the place where the family gathers to enjoy meals together, and nothing insures a better start than having br...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For Outdoor Or Glassed-In Sun Porches
Floor Coverings Grass, rush, or fiber rugs; coco mats or matting. Chairs Three or four, natural or painted wicker, plain wood painted, or the rustic type of hickory and reed. Table One solid tabl...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For Adults' Bedroom
The first requisite in furnishing a bedroom is that it appear crisp and clean. The walls, light in color, must be restful and simple in design. The woodwork may be white or ivory. Painted furniture is...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For The Guest Room
Floor Coverings Rugs, linoleum, or straw matting. Wiltons, velvets, rag, hooked, braided, or linen fiber rugs. Beds Twin beds in any of the hardwoods, natural finish or painted, or metal beds paint...
-Bedroom For Either Boys Or Girls
It has been proved that furnishings and color produce either desirable or disastrous effects upon the sensitive minds of children. As all children's rooms are usually a combination of bedroom, playroo...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For A Boy's Room
Floor Coverings Rugs, linoleum, or coco matting. Brussels, velvet, braided, or rag rugs, or strips of coco matting. Beds Single bed, wood or metal. If the room is shared by two boys, use two single...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For A Girl's Room
Floor Coverings Rugs, linoleum, or straw matting. Brussels, velvet, rag, braided, linen, or wool fiber rugs. Bed Single bed, wood or metal. If the room is shared by two girls, use two single beds...
-A Suggested List Of Furnishings For A Bathroom
Floor Should be sanitary. Tile, stone, specially finished cement, or linoleums are the most sanitary. Small black-and-white, or light blueand-white patterns are good. A well-filled painted wood floor...
-Amounts And Approximate Percentages For Furniture And Equipment
Per Cent Furniture................................ $1,251.50 41 Rugs.................................... 493.30 17 Linen, be...
-Modernism In Furniture
LeCorbusier says: Modern art, which is machine made, needs no decoration - can have no decoration. He says that the rational perfection and precise determination of machine products made solely for ...
-Living Conditions Have Changed
In what way is life different from what it was? In the first place, the physical conditions of life to-day are enormously different from what they were, and they are different almost wholly because of...
-References. Furniture
1. General Information Clute, Eugene. The Treatment of Interiors. New York: Pencil Point Press, 1926. Discusses interiors with particular emphasis on uses of period styles and modernistic design. C...
-Chapter XIII. The Kitchen. Kitchen Planning
Small kitchens are in general more convenient than large ones. In shape the oblong is more economical of floor space than the square and fewer steps are required in crossing the room from one work cen...
-Relation Of The Kitchen To The Rest Of The House
The connection between dining room and kitchen is of prime importance. A double-swing door leading directly from one to the other is most convenient of all. A pantry between dining room and kitchen ha...
-Kitchen Floors, Walls, And Woodwork
[Although wall and floor finishes have been discussed in general in one of the preceding chapters, the following paragraphs contain specific considerations.] The ideal kitchen floor is durable, comfo...
-Kitchen Ventilators
The variety of makes in the ventilator field might well cause the homeowner to pause in perplexity. But the principle behind them all is the same. A motor-driven fan - set in the kitchen wall or windo...
-Alternating Current
Where the fan is to run on alternating current, the 9, 12, or 16 inch size may be installed, with capacity ranging from approximately five hundred to 1575 cubic feet of air per minute. The nine-inch b...
-Five Major Requirements For Kitchen Equipment
First, the efficient kitchen requires a separate working surface for each kind of work to be done. In the preparation of meals this means a separate serving table as well as the usual work table or ca...
-Important Points To Consider In Selecting Or Building Large Equipment
Cupboards 1. All cupboards should extend to the ceiling. Otherwise the top becomes a catch all and dust catcher. 2. Where ceilings are high there should be two doors on cupboards. The upper one sh...
-What To Look For In Selecting Stoves
Coal Range In choosing look for: A range which is plain, with little or no nickel or ornament. A simple, clean arrangement for removal of ashes. A convenient opening for cleaning the flues. An eigh...
-What To Look For In Selecting Stoves. Continued
Facts To Remember There must be free circulation of air through the fuel - air spaces between the paper, wood, and coal. 1 Adapted from Marketing and Housework Manual (Boston: Copyrighted by Little,...
-Considerations In Selecting And Placing Equipment And Utensils
The Range The choice of a range depends largely upon the cost of the fuels available in your locality. If oil must be your choice you may wish to consider an oil range with a built-in oven. The lates...
-Selection Of Cooking Utensils
The most satisfactory list of kitchen utensils should include wares of each type..... The question of heat conductivity and fuel saving may have arisen in your mind as a result of the claim of some e...
-Garbage Disposal
There are now available small covered waste containers that clamp to the waste pipe directly underneath the sink or at a convenient height for use. These swing in under the sink out of the way when no...
-List Of Kitchen Utensils With Suggestions
For Grouping This list of kitchen utensils is offered by Good Housekeeping Institute as a guide for those who are equipping their first kitchen and also for those who are adding to or replacing some ...
-A Demonstration Kitchen
The New York Herald Tribune has established an Institute for Women through the initiative and guidance of Mrs. William Brown Meloney. This Institute, which is sponsored by an Advisory Council of notab...
-The Herald Tribune Kitchen
Foremost in that program have been the planning, building and equipping of a labor-saving kitchen, so that our readers may have a visible demonstration of the latest principles in housekeeping techniq...
-References. Kitchens
1. Kitchen Plans And General Information Child, Georgie Boynton. The Efficient Kitchen. New York: Robert M. Mc- Bride & Co., 1925. Delineator Home Institute. Delineator Kitchen and Laundry Plans and ...
-Chapter XIV. Reconditioning And Refinishing Walls, Floors, And Furniture. Home Repair Jobs
This chapter includes information only on the reconditioning and re-finishing of walls, floors, woodwork and furniture, since the bulletin Care and Repair of the House,1 by Vincent B. Phelan, just rec...
-Preparing Old Walls For New Finish
A good rule to go by is to remove every particle of the old finish whether it be wallpaper, cold-water paint (calcimine, alabastine, etc.) or oil paint if the latter shows any sign of peeling. ...
-1. To Remove Cold Water Paints
Tools Needed A good, wide whitewash or calcimine brush; a 3-inch-broad knife; two buckets of warm water; a large old cloth or old newspapers to protect the woodwork and floor; two stepladders or hors...
-2. To Remove Old Wallpaper
Wet all of the paper in the room, using the brush and clean warm water.....If there are two or more layers of paper, wet the entire surface and scrape off the top layer and then proceed in the same wa...
-3. To Remove Oil Paint From Walls
Tools Needed Your 3-inch-broad knife; cloth or newspapers for protecting woodwork and floor; stepladders or horses; No. 2 sandpaper; warm water; soda (1/2 pound to 1 pail warm water). Steps In Rem...
-Treatment of Walls from Which All Old Finish Has Been Removed
1. Filling Holes And Cracks In the case of many old walls, large cracks or breaks in the plaster have to be cared for. It is wise to remove or cut out any loose plaster with the edge of the broad kni...
-How To Finish Interior Woodwork
Good practice or proper finishing of the woodwork means: The right way of doing the job and the use of correct material, which means a longer-lived finish and one that costs less in the long run. K...
-1. Staining
There are three types of stains used for woodwork finishing - acid or water stains, penetrating or spirit stains, and pigment or oil stains. The first type is generally used by piano and furniture man...
-2. Varnishing
At this point, many builders apply a coat of dull drying varnish. One is amply repaid, however, in the added beauty and life of the finished product secured by applying one, or better, two coats of a ...
-3. Waxing
If the woodwork is to be finished in its natural color, first apply a paste wood filler, if it is an open-grain wood, then put on two thin coats of wax according to directions with the product. If the...
-4. Enameling And Painting
Birch is the best wood to take paint or enamel, as it is very hard and does not dent or bruise readily. Poplar, pine, and gumwood come next. When it is necessary to paint or enamel over these last-nam...
-How To Refinish Old Woodwork
A. To Prepare Old Surfaces 1. If the old coats are not worn off or chipped in spots, then thorough cleaning followed by sandpapering with No. 00 sandpaper will suffice. 2. If, however, the old coats...
-Refinishing Old Floors
In many sections of the country to-day, the housewife is confronted by a very perplexing problem. The refinishing of her floors has become a necessity. In this case the wood, its former treatment, and...
-Refinishing Old Floors. Continued
Repainting If the paint is worn off so that the wood shows in many places in the room, all of the paint should be removed as described in the preceding paragraphs. If it is worn slightly and only in ...
-Covering Floors
Where the floor is old and badly worn, many housewives have thought to free themselves from a great deal of labor by covering that worn, uneven surface. Because of a lack of information they lay the m...
-Furniture Refinishing
.... If the article has the three essentials of good furniture, which are good lines, good wood and good construction, refinishing is likely to be profitable. But if it lacks these essentials it is us...
-Furniture Refinishing. Continued
6. Stain Omit this if the natural color is desired. Many good wood stains are on the market. Select the color desired, but always try it out first on an inconspicuous part of the furniture. If any pa...
-Painted Furniture
.... To make a perfect job of an old varnished piece, every bit of varnish should be removed, according to directions given previously. Unless this is done the work will not be entirely satisfactory. ...
-Upholstering Old Chairs And Couches
The purpose of this [article] is to show, step by step, how to re-upholster chairs and couches. The tools listed are the minimum equipment. Tools Needed A pair of shears, gimp hammer (i.e., a small ...
-Upholstering Old Chairs And Couches. Continued
Covering The Springs Tack a piece of medium-weight burlap, old or new, on the top edge of the frame with four-oz. tacks, the edges being turned over as the tacking is done. Be careful not to pull it ...
-Chapter XV. Housing Standards. Some Of The Elements Of Good Housing
Executive Secretary of the President's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership. and James S. Taylor, Chief of the Division of Building and Housing, U.S. Department of Commerce. Housing standar...
-Some Of The Elements Of Good Housing. Part 2
Number And Arrangement Of Rooms It is not so much the cubic feet of space in a house as the way in which that space is used, which is important in a house of average size. Hence it is difficult to sa...
-Some Of The Elements Of Good Housing. Part 3
Plumbing A good system of plumbing with a supply of pure water has been said to be the most important single contribution of modern civilization to comfort, health, and elimination of disagreeable ho...
-Some Of The Elements Of Good Housing. Part 4
Home Ownership An owned house ordinarily is to be preferred to a rented one. The family has the maintenance of the house directly within its control, and feels free to go ahead with permanent improve...
-Housing Standards With Particular Reference To The Health, Safety And Welfare Of Children
Standards give something to work toward. It is possible to incorporate most of these standards in new dwellings for any income group, though it is recognized that certain of those relating to equipmen...
-Housing Standards. A. Neighborhood
1. The neighborhood should be primarily residential. Homes should not be located within an industrial district. 2. It should be protected by zoning laws, where necessary supplemented by deed restrict...
-Housing Standards. B. Lot
1.. House lots should be wide enough so that each room shall have sufficient light from open spaces on its own lot without depending upon its neighbors. The problem here is to provide adequate light ...
-Housing Standards. C. House Exterior
1. The house should be so designed and placed upon the lot as to provide for adequate sunning and natural lighting of all rooms. There should be direct sunshine at some time of day in each room throug...
-Housing Standards. D. House Interior - General
1. The room arrangement in the house plan should be such as to make it possible to avoid lost motion, to save unnecessary steps and facilitate housework. There should be relatively easy access from ro...
-Housing Standards. E. Fundamental Equipment
1. Water supply should be adequate in amount, clean and free from pollution. There should be conveniently located outlets in kitchen, bathroom and cellar and for outside use in watering lawns and gard...
-Recommended Minimum Housing Standards
From information obtained by a study of the intimate family life in various industrial towns, after consideration of the many practical elements entering into the question, and taking into considerati...
-Recommended Minimum Housing Standards. Part 2
19. Ventilation There shall be a clear height of not less than 6 ft. 6 in. from cellar floor to under side of first-floor joist. A minimum clear story height of eight ft. shall generally obtain for f...
-Recommended Minimum Housing Standards. Part 3
It is believed, therefore, there is considerable advantage, if not absolute necessity, in providing three grades of houses, as follows: First, a house as inexpensive as it is possible to build and sti...
-Chapter XVI. Designing The Home Grounds. Essentials In Planning The Home Grounds
A plan for the grounds should first be made. This should be done before the house is planned so that the house plan and that for the grounds may fit both one another and the location. If the house is ...
-Designing The Home Grounds. Essentials In Planning The Home Grounds. Continued
Start the grass when it can best meet weed competition - Kentucky blue grass and redtop in the early fall when weeds are few, Bermuda grass when warm weather arrives so that its vigorous growth will e...
-Principles Of Small-Property Design
Landscape architecture is a complex and profound art, serving not beauty alone but utility, and demanding the assistance and cooperation of architecture, engineering and horticulture. Landscape archit...
-Lawn Making
The foundation for a good lawn is a rich, deep, well-drained soil, retentive of moisture. There should be at least eight inches of good topsoil over any subsoil used or exposed in grading the lawn. As...
-Renovating The Lawn
If there is a partial stand of grass on the lawn, even though the ground is not more than one-fourth covered, the best plan is to seed freely about twice a year and apply suitable fertilizers at frequ...
-Foundation Planting
A house must be comfortable and attractive both inside and out to be a real home. It may be modest and simple, but it must be neat and in good repair. In addition it must give the feeling of belonging...
-Selection And Planting Of Trees. Suitable Trees For Planting
A few general principles should always be kept in mind in selecting trees to plant. Every species has a characteristic habit of growth and it is desirable to select trees which have the greatest natur...
-Selection And Planting Of Trees. Suitable Trees For Planting. Part 2
Mountain Region Blue spruce, Douglas fir, white fir, western yellow pine, native cottonwoods, and box elder. Connecticut Norway pine, white spruce, white oak, red oak, black oak, pin oak, sugar m...
-Selection And Planting Of Trees. Suitable Trees For Planting. Part 3
Maryland And The District Of Columbia Arborvitae (northern white cedar), white oak, pin oak, red oak, willow oak, Norway maple, red maple, London (Oriental) plane, American elm, basswood, European li...
-Selection And Planting Of Trees. Suitable Trees For Planting. Part 4
Ohio European larch, white pine, Scotch pine, Norway spruce, blue spruce, white spruce, arborvitae (northern white cedar), white oak, red oak, pin oak, black oak, white birch, sugar maple, Norway map...
-Tree Planting Suggestions
The proper season for planting is not everywhere the same. Where spring is the best season - north of the thirty-seventh parallel generally - the right time is when the frost is out of the ground and ...
-Considerations In Planning The Flower Garden
Almost anybody likes flowers, whether he is willing to acknowledge his liking or not. The one who claims to care nothing for them may be influenced in his dislikes by arrangement, or lack of arrangeme...
-Garden Walks
It is hardly possible to have a garden without paths which tie the garden to the house. They may lead us to the friendly doors of the dwelling, but they may also guide us through a thousand wonders to...
-Vegetable Gardens
The vegetable garden should be located whenever possible on land upon which the sun shines at least five hours daily, where there is plenty of moisture, and on soil which is free from rocks beneath th...
-References. Gardens
1. General Information On Designing And Planting Bottomley, Myrl E. The Design of Small Properties. New York: Macmillan Co., 1929. Principles of design for city and country grounds; garden architect...
-Chapter XVII. Rural Homes
A home planned for the city dweller rarely meets the requirements and needs of the farm family, but with the development of electrification programs, and electric light and power pushing their way int...
-The Development Of Better Farm Homes
.... Improved methods of farming mean that fewer people are being needed to carry on the work of the farm, .... In the second place, we know that the returns from farming are being used to an increas...
-The Location Of The Farm Home
There are fewer restrictions in locating the farmhouse on its site than there are in the placement of the urban dwelling on its usually small city lot. The farmhouse site in nearly all instances provi...
-Planning The Farmhouse
The article which follows by Mr. Wichers, although particularly applicable to farmhouses in Kansas, contains many suggestions applying in general to farmhouse problems. Grazing, wheat and corn growing...
-Considerations In Farmhouse Planning
Fundamentally all homes are intended for the same purpose - shelter. The hotel, the apartment house, the city home, the country estate, the palace and the shack all are forms of shelter. They are not ...
-Considerations In The Construction Of The Rural Home
It has become common in construction, as well as in other fields, to define the standards of performance expected of the finished product. What is it that we expect from the structure of a house? In ...
-Building Codes
The city builder is often saved, willy-nilly, from making certain mistakes because his building has to meet certain building-code requirements. On the other hand, these same building-code requirements...
-Building Codes. Part 2
Walls And Framing It may seem unnecessary to recall the fact that the walls and framework of the house should be substantial, with all the important parts well tied together. Yet, whenever a high win...
-Building Codes. Part 3
Plumbing And Bathroom A great deal of poorly designed plumbing goes into houses whether in the city or in the country. The report of the Department of Commerce Subcommittee on Plumbing gives diagrams...
-A Better Homes Demonstration
[In many parts of the country farmhouses have been demonstrated as part of the Better Homes campaign.1 The description which follows is of a farmhouse demonstrated in Illinois during the 1930 campaign...
-A Basement Of Conveniences
The basement contains fuel room, furnace room, workroom, and a fruit room near the foot of the stairs under the entrance - and a washroom with sanitary closet, lavatory and shower. The pump was place...
-References. 1. Farmhouses
1. General Information And Farmhouse Design Better Homes in America. Furniture, Furnishing and Interior Finish. Pamphlet List 2, 1930. ______The Rural Home and Planting the Home Grounds. Pamphlet Li...
-References. 1. Farmhouses. Part 2
2. Planning And Planting The Grounds Bottomley, Myrl E. The Design of Small Properties. New York: Macmillan Co., 1929. Country-home properties (pp. 98-127). Mulford, Furman Lloyd. Beautifying the Fa...
-References. 1. Farmhouses. Part 3
4. Inexpensive Equipment And Conveniences Ives, Frederick W. Home Conveniences. New York: Harper & Bros., 1924. Michigan State College of Agriculture. Simple Water Systems. Circ. 64. East Lansing: T...
-Part II. Progress In Improving Housing Conditions. Chapter XVIII. Outstanding Housing Problems. 1. The General Housing Problem
In discussing the general housing problem in the monograph Housing Conditions in the New York Region, which was prepared by Thomas Adams in collaboration with Wayne D. Heydecker, the authors state: ...
-Main Defects In American Housing
The chief defects to be found in the housing conditions that prevail throughout all parts of America - not merely in the East but in the Middle West, in the far West, in the South, in the North; in th...
-High Financing Costs
The high cost of housing in the United States is not, however, to be attributed solely to these factors. There are many others that enter into the situation. As most houses are built on borrowed money...
-Bad Methods Of Subdividing Property
Another factor in the housing situation is found in the unintelligent method of subdividing property that has prevailed in most of our cities until recent years. The prevailing method of laying out a ...
-The Slums
We also have developed slums in America - those sores of the old world cities. It might have been supposed that in a new country like the United States, with opportunity to develop as we wished, with ...
-The Housing Problem Of The Low-Income Groups
Housing is often regarded as a problem unrelated to other aspects of the life of a community. Housing is really one part of the great economic problem of all time, namely, that of the production and d...
-What Of The Future?
The United States has been rich enough to house its people fairly well. It has not been intelligent enough to devise appropriate housing codes, and zoning only started in 1916. There is a theory in th...
-A Standard For All New Dwellings
.... the improvement of housing conditions, if it is to go far enough to meet the need adequately, must be based on sound economics. Philanthropic housing, housing with a deficit, can never serve more...
-Twelve Housing Needs Of American Cities
[A summary from addresses at the recent conventions of the Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards, National Association of Civic Secretaries, Pennsylvania Housing and Town Planning Association, a...
-Public Responsibility For Housing
.... There are persons who are unable to pay an economic rent for healthful housing accommodations. In every state of society at all times there is a group of persons who cannot pay for such accommoda...
-Public Aid And Private Enterprise
Whatever objections there may be to public aid, it has to be admitted that in some circumstances no housing improvement is possible without it. The difficulty is to obtain the improvement without doin...
-Public Aid And Private Enterprise. Continued
Rent Restriction The granting of financial aid for house building may interfere with private enterprise less than some forms of restriction. To restrict rents artificially, however necessary as a tem...
-Forms Of State And Municipal Aid
When state or municipal aid must be given, the degree and form it takes will have much to do with the wisdom or propriety of giving it. Whether or not it should be given depends on what it is given fo...
-2. Problems Of Housing And Health. Factors Of Bad Housing That Contribute To Ill Health
.... To remove the forms of ill health which are produced by housing conditions, we must, therefore, discover the specific cause of each house disease and remove that cause. This is not easy, because ...
-Bad Housing And Infant Mortality
The United States Children's Bureau has made a number of studies which show a close relationship between high infant mortality rates and bad housing. It is obvious that other factors such as low stand...
-Health And Housing
When the Committee on the Regional Plan of New York four or five years ago began its study to determine how residential areas should be developed in the New York Region, it was confronted with a lack ...
-Dark Rooms And Tuberculosis
In Chicago in 1916 an effort was made by the Commissioner of Health to establish relationship between dark rooms and tuberculosis and similar bronchial infections. Careful measurements of light intens...
-Health And Density Of Population
Medical evidence has in the past generally asserted a correlation of health to density. A comparative study of figures from 71 cities in the United States brought out other interesting facts. Mortalit...
-The Value Of Light
An examination made in 1924 and 1925 of a vast amount of medical literature brought out some interesting facts with respect to light. A preponderance of medical testimony with respect to the value of ...
-Planning For Sunlight
As a matter of fact, planning for sunlight, placing the buildings as close together as is possible but guaranteeing sunlight, results in an economy of land use - provided it is done with scientific ac...
-Chapter XIX. Improving Housing Conditions Through City Planning And Zoning. Essential Features Of City Planning
Although every city is adjusted somewhat to the topography or natural features of the land on which it is built, and to the convenience and needs of its citizens, the inhabitants of most cities heedle...
-What Is A City Plan?
A comprehensive city plan with its maps and notes lies at the foundation of every good city-planning program. Since orderly development is the objective, the plan must anticipate probable future needs...
-Planning Rests On Legal Basis
Every square foot of land within a municipality is impressed with legal qualities, which are often more lasting than pavements or buildings or other physical structures. Once a strip of land becomes d...
-Transportation
Transportation enters into practically every phase of city planning, and a thorough study of the present and prospective daily movements of people, motor vehicles, and goods must be undertaken before ...
-The Street Plan
The local government of a community controls the streets, which are its arteries. If they are adequate for present and prospective use they permit a free flow of the traffic, which is the community's ...
-The Central Business And Shopping District
Free movement to the central business and shopping district concerns the entire community, the housewife, and the merchant alike. Certain businesses naturally seek locations in central districts, whic...
-Location Of Public Buildings - CIVIC Centers
The dignity and attractiveness of a community and the convenience of its citizens may be served by thoughtful location of public and semipublic buildings. These will ordinarily include the city hall, ...
-Residential Districts
In most communities the district where the people dwell are far greater in area than those in which they work and do business. Different families have different desires in the way of homes. Most prefe...
-The Outskirts Of The City
Sparsely built-up territories, particularly those on the outskirts of the city, allow the best scope for good development as to streets, recreation spaces, and public improvements in accordance with a...
-Parks And Playgrounds
Adequate recreation space, although often overlooked, is of great importance to a community, and provision for it rightly belongs in a good plan. A lawn around the home is the best place for very smal...
-Carrying Out The City Plan
The preparation of a good city plan requires skillful handling of details, clear vision into the future, good judgment in deciding what is practicable, and a spirit of fair play in adjusting interests...
-City Planning Commission And Its Work
A separately organized city planning commission is usually the best agency for assuming the general responsibility for preparing the plan and to aid the city government and private individuals in carr...
-City Planning And Housing
At the outset of this discussion, two definitions are needed. The term city planning will be used as covering the selection and use of land for public purposes in urban areas and control by the public...
-City Planning And Housing. Part 2
4. City planning and housing meet in the onward march of business and industry The blighted district is the outward and visible sign of this unwholesome contact. No one wants business and industry ...
-City Planning And Housing. Part 3
7. City planning and housing meet in many other times and places To describe them all in detail would greatly exceed the limits assigned to this paper.....These other times and places, some of which ...
-City Planning And The Standard City Planning Enabling Act
.... There are 31 states, the District of Columbia and the Territory of Hawaii that have laws in effect that authorize planning in cities, towns, boroughs, counties and regions.2 These laws are groupe...
-City Planning Commissions In The United States
Under the authority conferred by these general and special planning laws, planning commissions have been established in cities, towns and villages of many states. In other states commissions have been...
-The Standard City Planning Enabling Act
In March, 1927, the Advisory Committee on City Planning and Zoning, of the Department of Commerce, after an exhaustive study, published a Standard City Planning Enabling Act. The purpose of the Commit...
-Housing And The Regional Plan
The great American novel, of whose coming we used to talk a great deal, has not been written and probably never will be, for a novel must have location, must picture with fidelity to detail individual...
-Regional Plan Outline
The metropolitan region may roughly be defined as the area within commuting distance of the central or mother city. It may be an area about one or two cities of small or medium size as well as that ab...
-How Urban Units Are To Be Separated
The metropolitan region of the future therefore will be planned to contain a number of distinct urban communities which will be enabled to preserve their individuality by surrounding open areas. In pa...
-How Urban Units Are To Be Connected
Isolation, however, is not an objective in the regional plan. Each of the urban units in the region must be readily accessible from the others, more accessible than is the upper east side of New York ...
-Transit Routes As District Boundaries
The transit routes that tie the urban centers of the region together will in large part form the boundaries of residential districts. Along parts of these routes, especially at the intersections of ar...
-City Facilities And Neighborhood Facilities
Housing cannot be considered adequately apart from facilities offered by the city or community and their accessibility. To the wage earner distance from place of employment translated into terms of mo...
-City Facilities And Neighborhood Facilities. Continued
A Few Assumptions 1. It is desirable to decrease the speculative elements in housing and to increase the investment element until the first has been reduced to the vanishing point and the latter has ...
-Classification Of Urban Population
In urban communities there are several easily recognized groups for each of which housing provision should be made. First and much the most important, because with them lies the future, are the famili...
-Classification Of Houses
For the population that is to be housed in a carefully-planned region there is choice among the following types of dwellings: One-family houses [one family, occupying the whole house from cellar to r...
-County Planning
County planning is generally considered as in the nature of regional planning, with the county as the planning unit and county lines as the boundary lines of the region. Official county-planning commi...
-Slums And The City Plan
The city-planning and housing movements in most European countries are so closely intertwined that this relationship is taken for granted. In the United States they have had separate origins and run g...
-Slums And The City Plan. Part 2
Where The Responsibility Lies City planners cannot be expected to concern themselves with such matters as are summarized under 3 and 4. It is for health and housing authorities to enforce repairs and...
-Slums And The City Plan. Part 3
British Experience Where the same population returns to the new houses, carefuly kept vital and social statistics, before and after, show the extent, in a few years' time, to which health and behavio...
-What Makes The City Beautiful?
We have found that the mere machine, however efficient it may be, does not satisfy the soul. It is proving only too true that Man cannot live by bread alone. In a flood of recent Main Street books...
-What Is Zoning?
Zoning is the application of common sense and fairness to the public regulations governing the use of private real estate. It is a painstaking, honest effort to provide each district or neighborhood, ...
-Zoning Reduces The Cost Of Living
A blighted district is a district, originally developed for residence or industry, in the future of which people have lost confidence. The causes of such blight are manifold. The most familiar ca...
-Zoning. How To Get Started
Enabling Act Before any community undertakes zoning it must make sure that it has the power to pass a zoning ordinance. A general state enabling act passed by the state legislature is always desirabl...
-A Zoning Program
Surveys A zoning ordinance needs to be based on a comprehensive and detailed study of the precise local conditions, both present and prospective. What fits one city or town may be a bad misfit for an...
-Where To Get Information on Zoning
The Division of Building and Housing of the Department of Commerce at Washington, D.C., maintains a current list of zoned municipalities and of zoning enabling acts passed by state legislatures. The d...
-Zoning And Health
Zoning is an essential part of city planning. Generally speaking, about three-fourths of the land area of a city is privately owned and subdivided into blocks and lots; the other fourth, devoted to st...
-Zoning And Indoor And Outdoor Conditions
The relation between health and indoor life has long been recognized. Laws and ordinances covering the size and ventilation of sleeping rooms, drainage, dark hallways, cellars, windows, refuse disposa...
-Zoning And Phases Of Life
One of the primary purposes of zoning is to safeguard the conditions which affect three primary phases of life, namely, work, recreation, and sleep, each of which occupies about one-third of the adult...
-Zoning And Light
The rays of the sun bring light and heat to the earth, and both are necessary to man's existence. Dr. Haven Emerson, paraphrasing Michelet, has tersely epitomized human experience by saying, You cann...
-Zoning And Air
The necessity of pure air need not be argued. It is a fundamental principle registered by human experience. Modern studies of ventilation emphasize the physical properties of the air - temperature, hu...
-Zoning And Noise
Susceptibility to noise in general and to particular noises varies greatly among individuals. It is a difficult question to discuss. It is well known that noises hinder sleep. Physicians say that cert...
-Zoning And Congestion
Congestion, or crowding, needs to be viewed from at least three angles as far as health is concerned, that is, room crowding, land crowding, and personal contact. Room crowding is commonly expressed ...
-Zoning And Psychological Health
Health is mental as well as physical. Mental health is intangible, but none the less real. Sunlight is beneficial largely because it is cheerful. Trees and grass and flowers are healthful for the same...
-Zoning And Community Health
It is easy to object to particular applications of the zoning principle. Building restrictions of necessity must be arbitrary. Boundaries of districts must be actual lines, and in establishing lines w...
-Chapter XX. Improving Housing Conditions Through Legislation. Housing Reform And Legislation
The determination of how best to accomplish housing reform depends a good deal upon one's conception of what the housing problem is; before there can be an adequate discussion of the remedy there must...
-Housing Legislation And Its Enforcement
The conditions under which people live have a profound influence upon their health, safety and well-being. For their protection it has been found necessary in urban areas to frame comprehensive laws o...
-The Inspection Of Dwellings - Their Custody And Care
.... It may be said emphatically that the inspection of dwellings, their custody and care, is regulated by law in the United States..... Housing workers utilize several laws and cooperate with many a...
-New York's New Housing Legislation
The new housing legislation known as New York's Multiple Dwelling Law, which was enacted by the 1929 session of the New York state legislature and which replaced the Tenement House Law of 1901, has re...
-Chapter XXI. Improving Housing Conditions Through Housing Developments. Housing Developments
Most houses are built through private enterprise. However, a number of housing projects have been carried out which show improved housing conditions. The most outstanding of these recent developments ...
-Radburn Housing Development
The problems presented by new planning for towns and cities and regions are so numerous, so complex, so intricately interlaced with all the other problems of our modern life, that to attempt even so m...
-Radburn Housing Development. I. A Pattern For Streets And Parks
I do not know for what the checker-board street pattern was planned. Perhaps for the horse and buggy. Perhaps for the convenience of the engineer. Perhaps for the handiness of the 25- by 100-foot lot....
-Radburn Housing Development. II. Commerce And Industry
Thus far I have talked only of the residential sections of Radburn. Radburn is planned for a population on the land now owned by the City Housing Corporation, of about 25,000 people. In a sense it is ...
-Radburn Housing Development. III. Government And Community Organization
Another of the many problems which we have considered is that of local government and the organization of the community life. Radburn as a city of 25,000 people is perhaps ten years in the future. A ...
-The Amalgamated Clothing Workers Project
One of the outstanding cooperative housing developments is that of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of New York City. The first project of this organization was completed in 1927 and an extension beg...
-The Paul Lawrence Dunbar Apartments
The Paul Lawrence Dunbar Apartments for negroes located in the Harlem section of New York City which is a John D. Rockefeller, Jr., experiment is a step forward in housing for negroes. The apartment b...
-The Marshall Field Garden Apartment Homes
These apartments, conveniently located, provide for 628 families at an average cost of $15 per room per month. Each apartment has bath, outside light, and air and faces a street or a garden court. The...
-The Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments
The Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments of Chicago represent the realization of an idea conceived by Julius Rosenwald. They are the first practical experiment made on a large scale to improve housing...
-Mariemont, Ohio - A New Town Built To Produce Local Happiness
Through the beneficence of a wealthy, wise, and public-spirited lady, Mrs. Mary F. Emery, of Cincinnati, and the energy, good judgment, and idealism of the manager of her estate, Mr. Charles J. Living...
-Part III. Organizations Engaged In Housing And Home-Improvement Work. Chapter XXII. Governmental And Other Educational Organizations. Better Homes In America
Prior to 1922 the subject of home improvement had already commanded the attention of the Extension Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture in rural communities and of the National Housing Associ...
-American Homemakers, Inc
Home-information centers have been organized in many of the New England states. Among the cities where well-organized centers now are in operation are Springfield, Cambridge, Holyoke, Waltham, and Bos...
-The National Housing Association
The purpose of the National Housing Association is to improve housing conditions in every practicable way. The Association also organizes associations and committees. It gives aid in educational campa...
-State And Local Housing Associations
In a few of the states there are state housing associations organized to promote housing improvement. The Pennsylvania Housing and Town Planning Association, a volunteer organization, has been formed ...
-City-Planning And Regional-Planning Organizations
There are a number of national organizations which carry on a national program for the purpose of encouraging city and regional planning and assisting with problems in these fields. Some of the most o...
-Bureaus, Offices, And Divisions Of The United States Government Which Promote Home Improvement
Owing to the fact that the Bureau of Standards carries on extensive research and many technological investigations that affect the home either directly or indirectly, considerable space has been allot...
-The Bureau Of Standards
Science and the power machine are exalting home life. Today motors trap house dust in a vacuum, take the effort out of sewing, clean our clothes and dishes, and in summer cool our food, and make breez...
-The Division Of Building And Housing
The Division of Building and Housing was established in the Department of Commerce in 1921, when the country had not yet recovered from the wartime housing shortage, and when there were, at the same t...
-Seasonal Operation In The Construction Industries
In cooperation with a committee of the President's Conference on Unemployment, the Division in 1923 and 1924 made an extensive survey of seasonal operation in the construction industries. The committe...
-Municipal Building And Plumbing Codes
More than 850 local building and plumbing codes prescribe the conditions under which approximately three billion dollars' worth of building construction is carried out each year in the United States. ...
-Economic, Statistical, And Informational Service
In promoting stability, the Division collects and makes available basic statistics on building activity, and on production, consumption, and stocks of building materials, for the guidance of business ...
-Building Practice And Home Builders' Problems
In connection with building practice and home builders' problems, the Division conducts surveys and distributes information on trends in small dwelling construction, reporting on materials used, detai...
-Standard State Mechanics' Lien Act
It has been believed by many persons interested in the construction industries that considerable delay, annoyance, and expense could be avoided if there were greater uniformity in the mechanics' lien ...
-City Planning And Zoning
City planning and zoning have commanded a much enlarged interest in recent years because of the desire to stabilize values of real estate, the wish to promote orderly growth and to eliminate waste, th...
-Home Ownership
One of the principal aims of the Division is to encourage home ownership on a sound economic basis. In acquiring a home, a family usually learns habits of saving for a definite end, and develops more ...
-The Bureau Of Home Economics Of The United States Department Of Agriculture
The Bureau of Home Economics was created July 1, 1923, to meet the need of 26,000,000 homemakers in the United States for help in solving the problems they face daily. For many years the Department of...
-Office Of Cooperative Extension Work, Visual Instruction, And Editorial Work
A farm home, adequate, comfortable, beautiful in harmony with its natural setting, reflecting the interests and ideals of the family it shelters, is the goal toward which the whole cooperative extensi...









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