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Wild Flowers Of New York | by Homer D. House



Anyone who has observed the natural vegetation in such unlike parts of the State as the salt marshes and pine barrens of Long Island, the higher Adirondack and Catskill mountains or the woodlands of the western counties must have been impressed by the obvious difference in the wild flowers of those several sections, and especially by the fact that very few of the wild flowers which bloom between early spring and late autumn in the Adirondacks are to be found on Long Island...

TitleWild Flowers Of New York
AuthorHomer D. House
PublisherThe University of the State of New York
Year1918
Copyright1918, The University of the State of New York
AmazonWild Flowers Of New York

In Two Parts

By Homer D. House, State Botanist

-Regents of the University With years when terms expire
(Revised to July 1, 1918) 1926 Pliny T. Sexton LL.B. LL.D. Chancellor - - - Palmyra 1927 Albert Vander Veer M.D. M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. Vice Chancellor Albany 1922 Chester S. Lord M.A. LL.D. _ _ _ Brook...
-Letter Of Communication
New York State Museum January 30, 1918 The Honorable John II. Finley President of the University Sir: The scientific survey of this State, established in 1836 under the title The Natural History...
-Introduction
The State of New York possesses a large variety of herbaceous and shrubby plants with conspicuous flowers, which may be classed under the rather broad and indefinite term of wild flowers. For the p...
-Plant Structure
No one who loves plants, either cultivated or wild, has failed to note how they differ from one another in shape, size, color and arrangement of the flowers, the leaves and other parts. These features...
-Leaves
The leaf is an essential organ of all plants which live independently, that is, are not parasitic upon other plants (like the Dodder) or saprophytic upon dead plant remains (like the Indian Pipe). The...
-Flowers
The flower of a plant is a group of organs (figure 44) which exist for the purpose of producing seed. The parts of a flower fall into two general groups: those which actually function as seed producer...
-Flowers. Continued
Head (figure 53), an arrangement of flowers compactly on a common receptacle and surrounded by bracts (involucral bracts). Modification and arrangement of the perianth: Among the simpler groups of f...
-Pollination
The structure of most flowers affords an excellent indication of the device used for the transference of pollen from one flower to another (pollination). Long ago it was assumed that Nature wished no ...
-The Fruit
The fruit of a plant (in the case of our flowering plants) consists of the matured pistil (or gynoecium), including also whatever parts of the perianth or other floral organs may be joined to it. Frui...
-Cat-Tail Family - Typhaceac Broad-Leaved Cat-Tail Typha Latifolia Linnaeus - Figure I
A marsh or aquatic plant, usually growing in thick colonies from creeping perennial rootstocks provided with fibrous roots. Stems stout, round in cross-section, glabrous, 4 to 8 feet high. Leaves nume...
-Water Plantain Family - Alismaceae - Broad-Leaved Arrowhead - Sagittaria Latifolia Willdenow - Plate 1
A perennial aquatic herb with thickened base and numerous long, fibrous roots. Leaves long petioled and extremely variable in form and size, sometimes wider than long and obtuse, sometimes linear-lanc...
-Sagittaria latifolia - Wild Flower
There are several closely related species such as Sagittaria cuneata Sheldon, with a minute beak to the achene, which is erect over the ventral wing; Sagittaria pubescens Muhlenberg, which is strongly...
-Sedge Family - Cyperaceae - Sheathed Cotton Grass Or Hare's Tail Rush - Eriophorum Calliihrix Chamisso - Plate 2a
The Cotton Grass may be regarded not so much as a wild flower as one of the most ornamental of the sedges, since it is not a true grass. It is an inhabitant of cold, mossy bogs. The stiff culms, formi...
-Arum Family - Araceae - Jack-In-The-Pulpit; Indian Turnip - Arisaema Triphyllum (Linnaeus) Torrey - Plate 3
A perennial herb, I to 3 feet tall, from a rounded, acrid conn. Leaves one or two, nearly erect, and exceeding the scape, three-foliate, the segments or leaflets pale green beneath, ovate, acute, roun...
-Wild Calla; Water Arum - Calla Palustris Linnaeus - Plate 4
A perennial herb of swamps and bogs with long, acrid rootstocks, covered with sheathing scales and with fibrous roots at the nodes, from which arise numerous petioled leaves with thick, entire, glossy...
-Skunk Cabbage - Spathyema Foetida (Linnaeus) Rafinesque - Plate 5
A fetid herb, and the first plant to flower in the spring. The leaves are large, ovate, cordate, numerous in dense crowns, becoming in summer 1 to 3 feet long and 1 foot wide, but at flowering time sc...
-Yellow-Eyed Grass Family - Xyridaceae Carolina Yellow-Eyed Grass - Xyris Caroliniana Walter - Plate 2b
A small, tufted, grasslike plant of wet meadows and bogs, with numerous fibrous roots and flat, linear, grasslike leaves 4 to 15 inches long. Flowering scapes as long or usually much longer than the l...
-Pipe-Wort Family Eriocaulaceae Seven-Angled Pipewort Eriocaulon Septangulare Withering - Plate 6a
A small, tufted plant with pellucid, fenestrate-nerved leaves arising from the crown, 1 to 3 inches long. Flowering scapes weak, twisted, usually about seven-angled, 1 to 8 inches tall, or when submer...
-Spiderwort Family - Commelinaceae - Asiatic Dayflower - Commelina Communis Linnaeus - Plate 6b
A glabrous plant with decumbent or ascending branching stems, often rooting at the nodes, 1 to 3 feet long with numerous oblong-lanceolate leaves 3 to 5 inches long and 1 to 1| inches wide, acuminate...
-Spider Lily; Spiderwort - Tradescantia Virgiuiana Linnaeus - Plate 7
A tall, smooth or slightly pubescent plant, belonging to the same family as the Dayflower, often 1 to 3 feet tall, with long, linear or linear-lanceolate, long-pointed leaves, often a foot long and on...
-Pickerel Weed Family - Pontederiaceae - Pickerel Weed - Pontederia Cordata Linnaeus - Plate 8
A perennial aquatic herb, rising from a thick, horizontal rootstock, with thick, glossy, dark-green, ovate to lanceolate leaves, cordate-sagittate, truncate or narrowed at the base, 2 to 10 inches lon...
-Bunchflower Family - Melanthaceae Glutinous Triantha Or False Asphodel - Triantha Glutinosa (Michaux) Baker - Plate 8
A perennial, herbaceous plant, somewhat bulbous at the base; stems 6 to 20 inches high, viscid pubescent with black glands, bearing a few leaves near the base; most of the leaves basal and tufted, lin...
-Glaucous Anticlea Anticlea Chlorantha (Richardson) Rydberg - Plate 9a
A slender, herbaceous, perennial plant from a membranous coated, ovoid bulb which is about an inch long. Stems slender, 6 inches to 3 feet tall; leaves linear, one-eighth to seven-eighths of an inch w...
-Bunchflower - Melanthium Virginicum Linnaeus - Plate 10
A rather tall, leafy, herbaceous plant, perennial by a thick rootstock; stems slender to somewhat stout, 2 to 5 feet high. Leaves linear, acuminate, often a foot long, but only one-third to 1 inch wid...
-Lily Family - Liliaceae - Day Lily - Hemerocallis Fulva Linnaeus - Plate 12
A tall, glabrous herb with fibrous roots, usually growing in dense clusters. Leaves mostly basal, linear, erect or spreading, 1 to 2 feet long and one-half to two-thirds of an inch wide, channeled and...
-Red Lily; Wood Lily; Philadelphia Lily - Lilium Philadelphicum Linnaeus - Plate 13
Stems 1 to 3 feet tall from a bulb about 1 inch in diameter and composed of numerous narrow, jointed, fleshy scales. Leaves lanceolate, acute at both ends, or the lower leaves sometimes obtuse, in who...
-Wild Yellow Lily; Canada Or Nodding Lily Lilium Canadense Linnaeus - Plate 14
Stems 2 to 5 feet tall, from a stout rootstock bearing several subglobose, scaly, white bulbs. Leaves in whorls of four to ten or some of them alternate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 2 ...
-Yellow Adder's-Tongue; Dog's-Tooth Violet - Erythronium Americanum Ker - Plate 15a
A low, herbaceous plant arising from a deeply buried corm which propagates by offshoots; the simple stem 6 to 12 inches long, bearing a pair of equal or somewhat unequal, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, ...
-Ague Or Colicroot; Star Grass - Aletris Farinosa Linnaeus - Plate 16
Leaves mostly basal, lanceolate and spreading, forming a dense cluster, lanceolate, long pointed, narrowed at the base, pale yellowish green, 2 to 7 inches long, one-fourth to 1 inch wide. Roots numer...
-Lily Of The Valley Family - Convallariaceae Yellow Clintonia; Dogberry - Clintonia Borealis (Aiton) Rafinesque - Plate 17
Flowering scape or stem 6 to 15 inches high, with two to five (usually three), oval, oblong or obovate, thin, glossy green leaves at the base, their petioles sheathing the base of the stem which arise...
-Wild Or False Spikenard; False Solomon's-Seal - Vagnera Racemosa (Linnaeus) Morong - Plate 18
Stem slender or stout, erect or ascending, sometimes zigzag, 1 to 3 feet tall, simple, bearing numerous alternate, sessile or nearly sessile oblong-lanceolate or oval, acuminate leaves, 3 to 6 inches ...
-Three-Leaved Solomon's-Seal - Vagnera Trifolia (Linnaeus) Morong - Plate 32a
Stem and leaves glabrous from a slender, elongated rootstock, the erect stem 2 to 15 inches high with two to four (usually three) oval, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, sessile leaves 2 to 5 inches long, ...
-False Or Wild Lily Of The Valley - Two-Leaved Solomon's-Seal - Unifolium Canadense (Desfontaines) Greene - Plate 19
A low, herbaceous perennial with slender rootstock, and slender, erect and often zigzag stem, 2 to 7 inches high, bearing one to three (usually two) ovate or ovate-lanceolate, pointed leaves, cordate ...
-Sessile-Leaved Bellwort - Uvularia Sessilifolia Linnaeus - Plate 20a
Stems slender, glabrous, 4 to 12 inches high, naked or with one or two leaves below the fork. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 1 to 3 inches long when they mature, thin, sessile, acute at each end,...
-Large-Flowered Bellwort - Uvularia Grandiflora J. E. Smith - Plate 20b
An erect herb with smooth, leafy, forked stem from a perennial root-stock; stem with one or two leaves below the fork, 6 to 20 inches high. Leaves perfoliate, oblong, oval or ovate, pubescent beneath,...
-Sessile-Leaved Twisted-Stalk - Streptopus Roseus Michaux - Figure IV
Stems 1 to 3 feet high from a short, stout rootstock covered with fibrous roots. Branches usually three or four in number and obliquely ascending, all leafy and sparingly pubescent. Leaves alternate, ...
-Hairy Solomon's-Seal - Polygonatum Biflorum (Walter) Elliott - Plate 21
Stems slender, smooth, arching, often zigzag above from a thick, horizontal, jointed rootstock, bearing the raised orbicular scars of the stems of former years; stem naked below, above bearing six to ...
-Wake-Robin Family - Trilliaceae - Indian Cucumber Root - Medeola Virginiana Linnaeus - Plate 22
A slender, erect, unbranched herb from a perennial rootstock 1 to 3 inches long; stem 1 to 2 feet high, loosely covered with deciduous wool, bearing the lower whorl of leaves above the middle or, in ...
-Red Trillium; Wake-Robin Or Birthroot - Trillium Erectum Linnaeus - Plate 23a
Stem rather stout, 8 to 16 inches high, from a thick, short rootstock. Leaves rather dark green, very broadly rhombic, 3 to 7 inches long, often as wide or wider, sessile or nearly so, acuminate at th...
-White Trillium; Large-Flowered Wake-Robin - Trillium Grandiflorum (Michaux) Salisbury - Plate 23b
A glabrous, erect, unbranched herb from a stout, perennial, short, scarred rootstock, 8 to 18 inches high; bearing at the top of the stem three light-green, broadly rhombic-ovate or rhombic-oval leave...
-Painted Wake-Robin - Trillium Undulatum Willdenow - Plate 24a
Stem slender, 8 to 20 inches high, bearing three ovate, petioled, bluish green, waxy leaves, 3 to 8 inches long, 2 to 5 inches wide, long-acuminate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the base. Flowers ...
-Nodding Wake-Robin - Trillium Cernuum Linnaeus - Plate 24b
Stems rather slender, 8 to 20 inches high; leaves pale green, broadly rhombic, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, sessile or with very short petioles, peduncle one-half to 1 inches long, re...
-Amaryllis Family - Amaryllidaceae Yellow Star Grass - Hypoxis Hirsuta (Linnaeus) Coville - Plate 25
A low, perennial herb with the leaves all basal, narrowly linear, one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch wide, more or less villous and mostly longer than the flowering stems, from an ovoid or globose co...
-Iris Family - Iridaceae - Larger Blue Flag - Iris Versicolor Linnaeus - Plate 26
Stems round and smooth, erect, sometimes flexuous, 2 to 3 feet tall, often branched above, leafy; leaves erect, shorter than and chiefly upon the lower part of the stem, somewhat glaucous, one-half to...
-Narrow Blue Flag; Poison Flagroot - Iris Prismatica Pursh - Plate 27
More slender in every way than Iris versicolor Linnaeus, with a tuberous-thickened rootstock; stem 1 to 3 feet tall, bearing two or three very narrow, almost grasslike leaves usually less than one-fou...
-Pointed Blue-Eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium Angustifolium Miller - Plate- 28a
Perennial and tufted, stems stiff and erect, pale green and glaucous, 4 to 18 inches high. Leaves pointed, about half as long as the stems, about one-sixth of an inch or less wide. Stem simple or rare...
-Orchid Family - Orchidaceae
The members of the Orchid family in New York State, of which several are described and illustrated here, constitute a very important number of our wild flowers and call for a description of the family...
-Small White Lady's-Slipper - Cypripedium Candidum Willdenow - Plate 29
This is one of the rarer Lady's-slippers of the east, with rather stiffly erect stems 6 to 12 inches high. Leaves three to five, elliptic or lanceolate, pointed, 3 to 5 inches long, two-thirds to 1 i...
-Showy Lady's-Slipper - Cypripedium Reginae Walter - Plate 30
The largest and most showy of our native orchids, with a stout, villous-hirsute stem, 1 to 3 feet high, leafy to the top. Leaves large, 3 to 8 inches long, 1 to 4 inches wide, elliptic in shape, acute...
-Yellow Or Downy Lady's-Slipper - Cypripedium Pubescens Willdenow - Plate 31
Stems tall and leafy, 1 to 2 feet high; leaves oval or elliptic 3 to 6 inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide, pointed; sepals ovate-lanceolate, usually longer than the lip, yellowish or greenish yellow...
-Ram's-Head Lady's-Slipper - Criosanthes Arietina (R. Brown) House {Cypripedium Arietinum R. Brown) - Plate 32b And Figure V
Stems 6 to 12 inches high, with three or four elliptic or lanceolate leaves 2 to 4 inches long, one-third to 3 inches wide, one-flowered; sepals separate, lanceolate, one-half to seven-eighths of an i...
-Moccasin Flower; Stemless Lady's-Slipper - Fissipes Acaulis (Aiton) Small - (Cypripedium Acaule Aiton) - Plate 33 And Figure VI
A short-stemmed plant with only two large, basal, elliptic leaves, 6 to 8 inches long and 2 to 3 inches wide, thick and dark green. The single fragrant flower borne on a scape 6 to 15 inches high; sep...
-Small Round-Leaved Orchis - Orchis Rotundif Olia Pursh. Figure VII
Along with the Calypso, this small orchis shares the distinction of being the rarest wild flower of the State. Its slender stem rises to a height of 6 to 10 inches and bears near the base a single ova...
-Showy Orchis - Galeorchis Spectabilis (Linnaeus) Rydberg {Orchis Spectabilis Linnaeus) - Plate 34
Entire plant rather fleshy; stems short, five-angled, 4 to 12 inches high from a short rootstock provided with numerous fleshy roots. Leaves two, near the base of the stem, obovate, dark glossy green,...
-Tall Leafy Green Orchis - Limnorchis Hyperborea (Linnaeus) Rydberg - Plate 37a
A rather inconspicuous orchis with small flowers, the stem usually stout, 10 inches to 3 feet high. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, 3 to 10 inches long, one-half to 1 inches wide. Flowers numerous in a ...
-Large Round-Leaved Orchis - Lysias Orbiculata (Pursh) Rydberg - Plate 35 And Figure VIII
Flowering scape rather stout, 1 to 2 feet high, with a few inconspicuous bracts, and at the base, spreading flat on the ground, two large orbicular or orbicular-elliptical, dark-green, shining leaves,...
-Hooker's Orchis - Lysias Hookeriana (A. Gray) Rydberg - Plate 36
Stem or flowering scape 8 to 15 inches high, stout, smooth, without bracts, but with two fleshy, shining, dark-green, oval-orbicular or obovate, spreading or ascending leaves at the base, 3 to 6 inche...
-Yellow-Fringed Orchis - Blephariglottis Ciliaris (Linnaeus) Rydberg - Plate 37b
Stem slender, 1 to 2 feet high. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, 4 to 8 inches long, one-half to 1 inches wide, the upper ones much smaller. Flowers orange or yellow, large and showy in a terminal, many...
-White-Fringed Orchis - Blephariglottis Blephariglottis (Willdenow) Rydberg - Plate 38
A plant similar to the Yellow-fringed Orchis, but with a densely or rather dense, many-flowered spike of pure-white flowers, the petals toothed or somewhat fringed at the apex, rarely entire, the lip ...
-Ragged Or Green-Fringed Orchis - Blephariglottis Lacera (Michaux) Farwell - Plate 39b
Stems varying from slender and 1 foot or less high to stout and 2 to 3 feet high. Leaves firm, lanceolate, 3 to 8 inches long, two-thirds to 1 inches wide, decreasing in size upward. Flowers greenis...
-Smaller Purple-Fringed Orchis - Blephariglottis Psycodes (Linnaeus) Rydberg - Plate 39a
Stem rather slender, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves oval, elliptic or lanceolate, 3 to 10 inches long, two-thirds to 3 inches wide, becoming smaller above, dark green and glossy above. Flowers lilac-purple ...
-Rose Pogonia; Snakemouth - Pogonia Ophioglossoides (Linnaeus) Ker - Plate 40
A slender plant with fibrous roots and stems 8 to 15 inches high, propagating by runners. Leaves one to three on each stem, one-half to 4 inches long, lanceolate or ovate, erect, pointed or rather blu...
-Whorled Pogonia - Isotria Verticillata (Willdenow) Rafinesque - Figure IX
Stems 10 to 15 inches high, from long, perennial, horizontal, fleshy rootstocks, which give rise to new stems by buds. Stems bearing a whorl of five leaves at the summit. Leaves obovate, abruptly poin...
-Arethusa; Dragon's-Mouth; Wild Pink - Arethusa Bulbosa Linnaeus - Plate 43b
A low, scapose, smooth plant, 5 to 10 inches high from a small bulb, stem bearing one to three loose sheathing bracts on the stem and a single linear leaf hidden at first in the upper bract and develo...
-Grass Pink; Calopogon Limodorum Tuberosum Linnaeus - Plate 41a
Scape slender, 12 to 18 inches high from a round, solid bulb, arising from the bulb of the previous year, a single leaf appearing the first season, followed the next year by the flowering stem and a s...
-Wide-Leaved Ladies'-Tresses - Ibidium Plantagineum (Rafinesque) House - Plate 42a
A rather inconspicuous little orchid, 4 to 10 inches high with tuberous-fleshy roots. Leaves three to five to a stem, mostly near the base, lanceolate, 2 to 5 inches long. Flowers spreading in a dense...
-Southern Twayblade - Ophrys Australis (Lindley; House) - (Listera Australis Lindley) - Figure XI
The Twayblades are among the smallest of our native orchids and require sharp eyes to detect them among the recesses of the forest or bogs. The Southern Twayblade is about 5 to 10 inches tall, with tw...
-Downy Rattlesnake Plantain - Peramium Pubescens (Willdenow) - Macmillan - Figure XII
Flowering scape 6 to 20 inches high, densely glandular-pubescent, bearing several lanceolate scales, from a branching, fleshy, perennial rootstock. Leaves all near the base of the scape, I to 3 inches...
-Loddiges's Rattlesnake Plantain - Peramium Tesselatum (Loddiges) Heller - Plate 41b
Leaves oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1 to 2 inches long, one-third to one-fourth of an inch wide, bright green, abruptly narrowed into the petioles which sheathe the base of the stem, more or less...
-White Adder's-Mouth - Malaxis Monophylla (Linnaeus) Swartz - Figure XIII
Stem very slender, 4 to 8 inches high, smooth, bearing below the middle a single leaf which sheathes the stem, the blade I to 3 inches long, one-half to 1 inches wide. Flowers whitish, very small, i...
-Large Twayblade - Liparis Liliifolia (Linnaeus) L. C. Richard - Figure XIV
Scapes 4 to 10 inches high, striate and smooth from a perennial solid bulb, the base of the stem sheathed by several scales and two ovate or oval, blunt, shining, light-green leaves, 2 to 5 inches lon...
-Fen Orchis; Loesel's Twayblade - Liparis Loeselii (Linnaeus) L. C. Richard - Plate 42b
A low bog orchis with two light-green, shining, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate leaves, 2 to 6 inches long, one-half to 2 inches wide and obtuse, arising with the short stem from a solitary bulb which...
-Calypso - Cytherea Bulbosa (Linnaeus) House - (Calypso Borealis Salisbury) - Plate 43a
Stem or scape 3 to 7 inches high from a perennial bulb one-half of an inch or less thick with coralloid roots. The scape bears two or three loose sheathing scales and at the base a single round-ovate ...
-Large Coralroot - Corallorrhiza Maculata Rafinesque - Figure VIII
Stems stout or slender, 8 to 20 inches high, with a large mass of corallike branching rootstocks, the stem purplish, clothed with several appressed scales, devoid of green leaves or green color. Flowe...
-Lizard's-Tail Family - Saururaceae - Lizard's-Tail - Saururus Ceriums Linnaeus - Plate 44
Stem 2 to 5 feet high from a slender rootstock, jointed, pubescent when young, becoming smooth. Leaves ovate, thin, palmately five to nine-ribbed, dark green, entire, deeply cordate at the base, acumi...
-Nettle Family - Urticaceae False Nettle - Boehmeria Cylindrica (Linnaeus) Swartz - Plate 45
A perennial, rough-pubescent or nearly smooth, erect plant, 1 to 3 feet tall, not provided with stinging hairs as are the true nettles. Leaves mostly opposite, thin, petioled, ovate to ovate-lanceolat...
-Sandalwood Family - Santalaceae - Bastard Toadflax - Comandra Umbellata (Linnaeus) Nuttall - Plate 28b
Stems numerous from a horizontal, branching rootstock, said to be parasitic on the roots of adjacent herbs, 6 to 18 inches tall, usually branched and very leafy. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, pa...
-Birth-Wort Family - Aristolochiaceae - Wild Or Indian Ginger - Asarum Canadense Linnaeus - Plate 46
Leaves clustered in pairs from a slender, branching, aromatic root-stock, having the flavor of ginger. Leaf blades long petioled, reniform, thin, short pointed at the apex, 3 to 7 inches broad, dark g...
-Buckwheat Family - Polygonaceae Swamp Smartweed - Persicaria Muhlenbergii (S. Watson) Small - Plate 47a
Perennial by long rootstocks, rooting in the mud or in the water, stem erect, glabrous, or somewhat pubescent, enlarged at the nodes, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, th...
-Lady's-Thumb; Heartweed - Persicaria Persicaria (Linnaeus) Small - Plate 47b
Annual, smooth or somewhat puberulent, stems one-half to 2 feet high, erect or nearly so, simple or branched. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 2 to 6 inches long, nearly sessile, acuminate at b...
-Arrow-Leaved Tearthumb - Tracaulon Sagittatum (Linnaeus) Small - Plate 48a
Stems slender, weak, annual, decumbent, or climbing over other plants by the numerous sharp, recurved prickles which arm its four prominent angles. Leaves lanceolate-sagittate or oblong-sagittate, 1 t...
-Halberd-Leaved Tearthumb - Tracaulon Arifolium (Linnaeus) Rafinesque - Plate 48b
Stems angled, reclining, 2 to 6 feet long from a perennial root, armed with recurved prickles. Leaves broadly hastate, long petioled, 1 to 8 inches long, pubescent or glabrous beneath, the apex and ba...
-Climbing False Buckwheat - Bilderdykia Scandens (Linnaeus) Greene (Polygonum Scandens Linnaeus) - Plate 15b
Stems slender or stout, glabrous, high climbing, 2 to 20 feet long from a perennial root, somewhat rough on the ridges which mark the stem. Leaves ovate, sharp pointed, cordate at the base, 1 to 6 inc...
-Coast Jointweed - Polygonella Articulata (Linnaeus) Meisner - Plate 49a
Stems slender, wiry, erect or somewhat diffusely spreading, annual, glaucous, simple or the larger ones often much branched, 4 to 12 inches high. Leaves linear or linear-subulate, with revolute margin...
-Goosefoot Family - Chenopodiaceae - Slender Or Jointed Glasswort; Saltwort - Salicornia Europaea Linnaeus - Plate 49b
A fleshy, glabrous annual plant, 4 to 20 inches high, usually erect and much branched, with opposite, ascending branches, their joints two to four times as long as thick. Leaves reduced to mere scales...
-Poke-Weed Family - Phytolaccaceae - Poke; Scoke; Pigeon Berry; Garget - Phytolacca Americana Linnaeus - Plate 50
A tall, strong-smelling, succulent and glabrous plant with an erect herbaceous stem 3 to 10 feet tall, from a large, perennial, poisonous root, the pith of the stem divided into discs separated by len...
-Purslane Family - Portulacaceae - Narrow-Leaved Spring Beauty - Claytonia Virginica Linnaeus - Plate 51a
Stems 6 to 12 inches long, ascending or decumbent from a deep, tuberous, perennial root. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, glabrous and somewhat fleshy, blunt or pointed, narrowed below into a petio...
-Carolina Or Wide-Leaved Spring Beauty - Claytonia Caroliniana Michaux - Plate 69a
Closely resembling the Narrow-leaved Spring Beauty, but usually more erect. Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong, 1 to 4 inches long, one-half to 1 inch wide, obtuse; stem leaves petioled; flowers ...
-Chickweed Family - Alsinaceae - Field Or Meadow Chickweed - Cerastium Arvense Linnaeus - Plate 63a
A densely matted or tufted perennial plant, usually more or less pubescent. Flowering stems 4 to 10 inches high, simple or sparingly branched. Lower leaves and those of the numerous sterile shoots lin...
-Pink Family - Caryophyllaceae Bladder Campion; White Ben - Silene Latifolia (Miller) Britten & Rendel - Plate 52
Stems herbaceous, from a perennial root, glaucous and glabrous, or rarely pubescent, extensively branching from the base, 6 to 20 inches high. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, pointed, variable in ...
-Wild Pink - Silene Caroliniana Walter - Plate 53
Densely tufted and perennial from a stout root, 4 to 10 inches high, viscid -pubescent, especially above, often glabrous below. Basal and lower leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, pointed or blunt, 2 to...
-Cuckoo-Flower; Ragged Robin - Lychnis Fios-Cuculi Linnaeus - Plate 54a
Stems slender, erect, 1 to 2 feet high, simple or branching, from a thick, perennial root, downy-pubescent below, slightly viscid above. Lower and basal leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, 2 to 4 inches...
-Sacred Bean Family - Nelumbonaceae - American Nelumbo Or Lotus - Nelumbo Lutea (Willdenow) Persoon - Plate 55
Rootstock stout, nearly horizontal, tuberiferous, in mud beneath 2 to 6 feet of water. Leaves 1 to 2 feet broad, orbicular, or somewhat constricted in the middle, centrally peltate, floating or raised...
-Water Lily Family - Nymphaeaceae - Large Yellow Pond Lily; Spatter-Dock - Nymphaea Advena Solander - Plate 56
Floating and emersed leaves 5 to 12 inches long and 5 to 9 inches broad, ovate or orbicular-oval, thick, with a sinus 2 to 5 inches deep and generally open; submerged leaves, when present, thin and me...
-Sweet-Scented White Water Lily - Castalia Odorata (Aiton) Woodville & Wood - Plate 57
Aquatic, with a thick, horizontal rootstock. Leaves floating, orbicular or nearly so, 4 to 12 inches in diameter, glabrous, green and shining above, purple and somewhat pubescent beneath, the sinus op...
-Tuberous White Water Lily - Castalia Tuberosa (Paine) Greene - Plate 58
Leaves orbicular, 5 to 12 inches in diameter, floating, green on both sides, sometimes slightly pubescent beneath, sinus open or closed. Root-stock thick, with numerous lateral tuberous-thickened bran...
-Crowfoot Family - Ranunculaceae - Marsh Marigold; Cowslip - Caltha Palustris Linnaeus - Plate 59
A succulent, herbaceous plant with stout, glabrous, hollow stems, erect or ascending, 1 to 2 feet high, branching and bearing several or numerous bright-yellow flowers. Lower leaves long petioled, the...
-Goldenseal; Orange-Root - Hydrastis Canadensis Linnaeus - Figure XV
An erect, perennial herb with a thick yellow rootstock. Stems 10 to 15 inches high. Usually each plant with a single, long-petioled basal leaf which is 5 to 8 inches broad and palmately 5 to 9-lobed, ...
-American Globeflower - Trollius Laxus Salisbury - Plate 61
Stems few or several from a perennial fibrous root, erect or ascending, often slightly fleshy but weak, from a few inches to 2 feet long. Lower leaves long-stalked; upper ones short-stalked or sessile...
-Goldthread Coptis Trifolia (Linnaeus) Salisbury - Plate 60a
A low, herbaceous plant with a slender or filiform bright-yellow, bitter rootstock. Leaves all basal, evergreen, long petioled, the blade reniform, 1 to 2 inches broad, divided to the petiole into thr...
-Red Baneberry; Black Cohosh - Actaea Rubra (Aiton) Willdenow - Plate 62
Stems erect, 1 to 2 feet high, from a perennial root, pubescent or smooth. Leaves ternately divided, the divisions pinnate with the lower ultimate leaflets sometimes again compound; leaflets ovate or ...
-White Baneberry; Snakeroot - Actaea Alba (Linnaeus) Miller - Plate 63b
Resembling the Red Baneberry in general habit and aspect. Leaflets usually more cut and the teeth and lobes sharply pointed. Flowers in oblong racemes; petals truncate at the apex; fruiting pedicels a...
-Black Snakeroot; Black Cohosh - Cimicifuga Racemosa (Linnaeus) Nuttall - Plate 64
Stems tall and slender, 3 to 8 feet high, leafy above, rootstock thick and perennial. Leaves ternate with pinnate divisions; leaflets ovate or oblong, the terminal ones visually obovate, pointed at th...
-Wild Columbine; Rock Bells - Aquilegia Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 65
Erect and branching, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, 1 to 2 feet high, from a perennial root. Leaves ternately decompound, the lower and basal leaves slender-petioled, 4 to 8 inches broad, the ultimat...
-Tall Anemone; Thimbleweed - Anemone Virginiana Linnaeus - Plate 66
Stem stout, hairy, 2 to 3 feet tall, branching above at the involucre which is composed of two to five, usually three, short-petioled leaves; the lateral peduncles often bearing secondary involucres o...
-Canada Or Round-Leaved Anemone - Anemone Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 67
Stems slender or stout, 1 to 2 feet tall, somewhat hairy, especially on the lower surfaces of the leaves, branching at the involucre. Basal leaves. Long petioled, broader than long, three to five-poi...
-Windflower; Wood Anemone - Anemone Quinquefolia Linnaeus - Plate 68a
Smallest of our wild anemones. Stems simple, glabrous, 4 to 10 inches high, from horizontal, perennial rootstocks. Basal leaves long petioled, usually developing after the flowering stem, five-parted,...
-Round-Lobed Hepatica Or Liverleaf - Hepatica Hepatica (Linnaeus) Karsten - Plate 51b
Leaves long petioled, arising with the flowering scapes directly from the fibrous roots, reniform, hairy, 2 to 2 inches broad when mature, spreading on the ground, three-lobed (occasionally the later...
-Sharp-Lobed Hepatica Or Liverleaf - Hepatica Acutiloba Decandolle - Plate 69b
Resembling in most respects the Round-lobed Hepatica but the leaf lobes and the leaves of the involucre are pointed, the scapes usually a little longer, and the flowers somewhat larger. The flowers ar...
-Rue Anemone - Syndesmon Thalictroides (Linnaeus) Hoffmannsegg - Plate 68b
Stems slender and weak, glabrous, 4 to 10 inches high; the flowering stem appearing in early spring from a cluster of tuberous roots, the ternately compound basal leaves appearing later and resembling...
-Swamp Or Marsh Buttercup - Ranunculus Septentrionalis (Linnaeus) Poiret - Plate 70
Stems branching, I to 2 feet long, or becoming longer in summer, ascending, the later branches procumbent and often rooting at the nodes. Roots simply fibrous; stems glabrous or pubescent. Leaves larg...
-Hispid Buttercup - Ranunculus Hispidus Michaux - Plate 60b
Plant usually hairy when young, sometimes merely appressed-pubescent or glabrate when old; stems ascending or spreading, usually several from a thickened, fibrous, perennial root; at flowering time th...
-Stiff White Water Crowfoot - Batrachium Circinatum (Sibthorp) Reichenbach - Plate 79a
Plant entirely submerged, except the flowers. Stems branching, usually 1 foot long or longer. Leaves about 1 inch long, spreading nearly at right angles from the stem, only slightly or not at all coll...
-Early Meadow Rue - Thalictrum Dioicum Linnaeus - Plate 71
Stems glabrous, erect, 1 to 2 feet high, slender and leafy from brown perennial roots. Leaves three to four-ternate. Leaflets thin, pale beneath, orbicular or broader, often cordate and the terminal o...
-Fall Meadow Rue - Thalictrum Polygamum Muhlenberg - Plate 72
Stems stout, smooth or pubescent but not glandular or waxy, 3 to 10 feet high, branching. Leaves three to four-ternate; leaflets thickish, light green above and pale beneath, oblong or orbicular with ...
-Virgin's Bower; Woodbine; Wild Clematis - Clematis Virginiana Linnaeus - Figure XVI And Plate 73
A long vine, climbing over bushes in low woodlands, and along fences and watercourses. Stems somewhat woody below but only the root perennial in the north at least. Leaves opposite, glabrous, trifolia...
-Purple Virgin's Bower - Atragene Americana Sims (Clematis Verticillaris De Candolle) - Figure XVII
A trailing or partly climbing vine, somewhat woody and perennial below, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves trifoliate; leaflets thin, ovate, acute, toothed or entire and more or less cordate; petioles and ...
-Erect Silky Leather Flower - Viorna Ochroleuca (Aiton) Small - Plate 74
Stems erect, silky-hairy, 1 to 2 feet high and somewhat woody at the base from a thickened, woody, perennial root. Leaves opposite, simple, sessile, ovate or elliptical-ovate, blunt, smooth and glabro...
-Barberry Family - Berberidaceae Blue Cohosh - Caulophyllum Thalictroides (Linnaeus) Michaux - Plate 75
Stems erect, glabrous and glaucous when young, 1 to 3 feet high from a thickened, perennial rootstock; the base of the stem with two or three large, sheathing bracts, near the top of the stem a single...
-May Apple; Wild Mandrake - Podophyllum Peltatum Linnaeus - Plate 76
Stems erect, 1 to 1 feet high, from a perennial, horizontal, poisonous rootstock. Basal leaves centrally peltate, often nearly a foot in diameter, long petioled, deeply five to nine-lobed, glabrous ...
-Twin-Leaf - Jeffersonia Diphylla (Linnaeus) Persoon - Figure XVIII
A smooth, perennial, fibrous-rooted plant, 6 to 8 inches high when in flower, later becoming 10 to 18 inches high. Leaves and flowering stems arising from a scaly base. Leaves glaucous beneath, long p...
-Poppy Family - Papaveraceae - Bloodroot; Puccoon-Root - Sanguinaria Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 77
Leaves and stems glabrous, especially when young, from a stout, horizontal rootstock, one-half to I inch thick, densely clothed with thick, fibrous roots. Juice of the roots and stems red. Leaves basa...
-Fumewort Family - Fumariaceae Dutchman's-Breeches - Bicuculla Cucullaria (Linnaeus) Millspaugh - Plate 78
A rather delicate, smooth and somewhat tufted herbaceous plant from a bulbous, perennial base. Leaves all basal, numerous and slender-stalked, pale beneath, finely divided into many narrow segments. F...
-Mountain Fringe; Alleghany Vine - Adiumia Fungosa (Aiton) Greene - Plate 79b
Stems weak, slender, climbing several feet over other plants by its slender petioles from a biennial root. Leaves two to three-pinnate, the leaflets slender stalked, lobed or entire, very thin, ovate ...
-Pink Or Pale Corydalis - Capnoides Sempervirens (Linnaeus) Borkhausen - Plate 80
Stems and leaves glabrous, glaucous, erect or ascending, 6 inches to 2 feet high and freely branching. Lower leaves 1 to 5 inches long, short petioled, the upper leaves sessile or nearly so, all divid...
-Mustard Family - Cruciferae Lyre-Leaved Rock Cress - Arabis Lyrata Linnaeus - Plate 54b
A low, tufted perennial or biennial plant with ascending or erect stems, 4 to 12 inches high, smooth above, pubescent below or glabrous throughout. Basal leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, 1 to 2 inches long, ...
-Bulbous Cress; Cuckoo-Flower - Cardamine Bulbosa (Schreber) Britton, Sterns & Poggenberg - Plate 90a
A slender, erect, herbaceous plant with smooth stems, 6 to 20 inches high from a perennial, tuber-bearing root, simple or rarely branched. Leaves of two sorts, those of the stem sessile and clasping o...
-Cut-Leaved Toothwort Or Pepperroot - Dentaria Laciniata Muhlenberg - Plate 81a
Stems erect, pubescent or glabrous, 8 to 15 inches high from a deep, perennial, tubercled, jointed rootstock, the joints easily separable. Leaves all petioled, 2 to 5 inches broad, those on the stem u...
-Two-Leaved Toothwort Or Crinkleroot - Dentaria Diphylla Michaux - Plate 81b
Stems stout, simple, glabrous, 6 to 14 inches high from a perennial, notched but continuous rootstock. Basal leaves long petioled, 4 to 5 inches broad, with three broadly ovate, dentate or somewhat lo...
-American Sea Rocket - Cakile Edentula (Bigelow) Hooker - Plate 82a
Plant very fleshy throughout, bushy branched from a deep, annual root, the lower branches spreading or ascending, the center ones erect, a few inches to a foot high. Leaves oblanceolate or obovate, ob...
-Pitcher Plant Family - Sarraceniaceae Pitcher Plant; Sidesaddle Flower - Sarracenia Purpurea Linnaeus - Plate 83
Leaves tufted, ascending, hollow, much inflated and trumpet-shaped, 4 to 12 inches long, with a broad, lateral wing and an erect terminal lid or lamina, glabrous except the inner side of the lamina an...
-Sundew Family - Droseraceae - Spatulate-Leaved Sundew - Drosera Intermedia (Linnaeus) Hayne - Plate 84
A tufted bog plant with erect, flowering scapes, 2 to 8 inches high, and elongated rootstocks. Leaf blades ascending, spatulate, obtuse at the apex, one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch long, one-ha...
-Virginia Stonecrop Family - Penthoraceae Ditch Or Virginia Stonecrop - Penthorum Sedoides Linnaeus - Plate 87b
Stems erect, glabrous, often branched and angled above, 6 inches to 2 feet high, from a perennial root. Leaves alternate, sessile, lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, acuminate at each end, finely toothe...
-Grass-Of-Parnassus Family - Parnassiaceae - Carolina Grass-Of-Parnassus - Parnassia Caroliniana Michaux - Plate 85
Flowering scape 6 to 20 inches high, with a sessile, ovate, clasping leaf below the middle. Basal leaves very numerous, ovate, oval, or nearly orbicular, obtuse at the apex, rounded or slightly cordat...
-Saxifrage Family - Saxifragaceae - Yellow Mountain Saxifrage - Leptasea Aizoides (Linnaeus) Haworth - Plate 82b
Stems tufted, forming loose or dense leafy mats, 2 to 7 inches high. Leaves alternate, linear, thick, fleshy, sharply pointed at the apex, sessile, one-third to three-fourths of an inch long, one-eigh...
-Early Saxifrage - Micranthes Virginiensis (Linnaeus) Small - Plate 87a
Flowering stem 4 to 12 inches high, viscid-pubescent with whitish hairs, leafless or with a few green bracts at the base of the inflorescence. Leaves all basal, 1 to 3 inches long, obovate, or oval, t...
-Swamp Saxifrage - Micranthes Pennsylvanica (Linnaeus) Haworth - Plate 86
Flowering scape stout, viscid-pubescent, 1 to 3 feet high, with green bracts at the inflorescence, otherwise leafless. Leaves all basal, large, oval, ovate, obovate or oblanceolate, pubescent or near...
-Foamflower; False Miterwort - Tiarella Cordifolia Linnaeus - Plate 88
Flowering scapes 6 to 12 inches high, slender and pubescent, from a rather stout, perennial root. Leaves all basal, long petioled, broadly ovate or nearly orbicular, cordate at the base, three to seve...
-Alumroot - Heuchera Americana Linnaeus - Plate 89
Flowering stem rather stout, 1 to 3 feet high, leafless, glandular, hirsute. Leaves basal, long petioled, 3 to 4 inches wide with seven to nine rounded, crenate-dentate lobes; the older leaves glabr...
-Two-Leaved Bishop's Cap; Miterwort - Mitella Diphylla Linnaeus - Plate 90b
Stems erect, often several together from a perennial root, 8 to 17 inches high, pubescent, each stem bearing a pair of opposite, sessile or nearly sessile leaves near or above its middle. Basal leaves...
-Rose Family - Rosaceae Meadowsweet; Quaker Lady - Spiraea Latifolia (Alton) Borkhausen - Plate 93a
An erect shrub, 2 to 6 feet high, usually more or less branched above and smooth with reddish stems. Leaves short petioled, blades oblanceolate or obovate, glabrous or nearly so, coarsely toothed, 1 t...
-Hardhack; Steeplebush - Spiraea Tomentosa Linnaeus - Plate 94a
Erect, shrubby and perennial at least below, the tops usually dying back, 1 to 3 feet tall, usually simple; stems floccose-pubescent. Leaves short petioled, ovate or oval, 1 to 2 inches long, one-half...
-Indian Physic; Bowman's Root - Porteranthus Trifoliatus (Linnaeus) Britton - Plate 91
Stems erect, herbaceous, 2 to 4 feet high, from a perennial root, usually branched, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Stipules small, one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch long, entire or toothed. Leaves ...
-Common Five-Finger Or Cinquefoil - Potentilla Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 92a
Stems ascending, a few inches high, spreading by slender runners 3 inches to 1 or 2 feet long; the pubescence of the stem, petioles and peduncles spreading. Leaves petioled, digitately five-foliated; ...
-Rough-Fruited Cinquefoil - Potentilla Recta Linnaeus - Plate 95
Stems erect, stout, branched above, villous-pubescent, 1 to 2 feet high from a stout, perennial root, with ovate-lanceolate stipules, the lower foliaceous and cut. Leaves digitately five to seven-foli...
-Silverweed; Wild Or Goose Tansy - Argentina Anserina (Linnaeus) Rydberg - Plate 92b
Stems and leaves herbaceous and tufted from a perennial root; spreading by slender runners, 8 inches to 3 feet long. Leaves pinnate, 3 to 18 inches long; leaflets seven to twenty-five, oblong, oblance...
-Purple Or Marsh Cinquefoil; Purplewort - Comarum Palustre Linnaeus - Plate 96a
Stems decumbent, often rather long, somewhat woody and perennial at the base; pubescent above. Leaves pinnate, upper leaves three to five-foliate, nearly sessile, lower ones successively longer petiol...
-Wild Or Scarlet Strawberry - Fragaria Virginiana (Linnaeus) Duchesne - Plate 97a
Plants tufted, usually several or many together, dark green, foliage villous-pubescent with spreading hairs. Leaves thick, with three broadly oval or obovate, coarsely toothed leaflets, the terminal o...
-Shrubby Five-Finger Or Cinquefoil - Dasiphora Fruticosa (Linnaeus) Rydberg - Plate 96b
A branching shrub with ascending or erect, leafy branches, 1 to 4 feet high. Leaves pinnate, leaflets five to seven, linear-oblong or oblanceolate, pointed at each end, one-half to 1 inch long, silky-...
-American Great Burnet - Sanguisorba Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 94b
An erect, leafy, herbaceous plant from a thick, perennial root; stems sometimes decumbent at the base, glabrous or somewhat pubescent below, simple or branched above, 1 to 6 feet high. Leaves odd-pinn...
-Common Agrimony - Agrimonia Striata Michaux - {Agrimonia Brittoniana Bicknell) - Plate 98b
Stem rather stout and visually with some straight, nearly erect branches, 2 to 6 feet tall from a perennial fibrous root, pubescent with short, spreading, brownish hairs, somewhat appressed above. Lea...
-Barren Or Dry Strawberry - Waldsteinia Fragarioides (Michaux) Trattinnick - Plate 99
A perennial, herbaceous plant resembling a strawberry, with creeping, rather stout rootstock. Leaves tufted, mainly basal, long petioled, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, three-foliate; leaflets obovat...
-Yellow Avens; Camproot Geum Strictum Aiton - Plate 98a
Stems erect or nearly so, pubescent, somewhat branched, 2 to 4 feet high, basal leaves lyrate-pinnate with five to seven obovate, cuneate, toothed or lobed leaflets, with a few smaller leaflets inters...
-Purple Or Water Avens - Geum Rivale Linnaeus - Plate 100
Stems simple or nearly so, erect, pubescent, 1 to 3 feet high, from stout perennial roots. Basal leaves lyrately and interruptedly pinnate, petioled, the lateral segments generally few and small, the ...
-Purple-Flowering Raspberry; Thimbleberry - Rubus Odoratus Linnaeus - Plate 101
Shrubby, erect and branched, perennial; new growth glandular-pubescent and somewhat bristly but not prickly, 3 to 5 feet high. Leaves simple, petioled, large, 5 to 10 inches broad, three to five-lobed...
-Dewberry; Low Running Blackberry - Rubus Procumbens Muhlenberg ' - Plate 93b
Stems trailing, shrubby and perennial, often several feet long, armed with numerous or very few prickles. Branches erect, 4 to 12 inches long, slightly pubescent, often prickly and glandular. Leaves t...
-Dalibarda; Dewdrop Or False Violet - Dalibarda Repens Linnaeus - Plate 97b
Stems very slender, much tufted, several inches long. Leaves downy-pubescent on both sides, three-fourths to 2 inches broad, long petioled, ovate-orbicular, cordate, the margin with low, blunt or some...
-Low Or Pasture Rose - Rosa Virginiana Miller - Plate 102
A bushy shrub, a few inches to 3 or 4 feet high, sometimes higher; the stems armed with slender or stout, straight or curved infrastipular spines, and more or less prickly. Stipules entire. Leaves alt...
-Apple Family - Malaceae Black Chokeberry - Aronia Melanocarpa (Michaux) Britton - Plate 103
An extensively branching shrub, 3 to 8 feet high. Leaves obovate to oval, the apex varying from blunt to pointed, narrowed or cuneate at the base, short petioled, the margins crenulate, dark green abo...
-Senna Family - Caesalpiniaceae - Wild Or American Senna - Cassia Marilandica Linnaeus - Plate 104
Stems 3 to 7 feet high, sparingly branched or simple, glabrous or with scant pubescence, from a perennial root. Leaves evenly pinnate, not sensitive to the touch, petioled and with a club-shaped gland...
-Sensitive Pea; Wild Sensitive Plant - Chamaecrista Nictitans (Linnaeus) Moenchhausen - Plate 105a
An annual plant, 5 to 16 inches high with erect or decumbent, branching and somewhat pubescent stems. Leaves evenly pinnate, sensitive to the touch, bearing a small gland near the base of the petiole;...
-Partridge Pea; Large-Flowered Sensitive Pea - Chamaecrista Fasciculate (Michaux) Greene - Plate 105b
Stems annual, rather widely branched and pubescent with spreading hairs or nearly smooth, 1 to 2 feet high. Leaves with a sessile gland on the petiole, sensitive, similar to the preceding species but ...
-Pea Family - Fabaceae Wild Indigo; Horsefly Weed - Baptisia Tinctoria (Linnaeus) R. Brown - Plate 107a
Stems glabrous, erect, much branched, 2 to 4 feet high from a perennial root, blackening in dying. Leaves petioled, three-foliate, alternate; leaflets obovate, one-half to 1 inches long, nearly sess...
-Wild Or Perennial Lupine - Lupinus Perennis Linnaeus Figure XIX And Plate 106
Stems 8 to 24 inches high, erect, pubescent and often branched, from a perennial root. Leaves digitately compound with seven to eleven (usually about eight), oblanceolate, sessile leaflets, blunt and ...
-Rabbit-Foot, Old Field, Or Stone Clover - Trifolium Arvense Linnaeus - Plate 108a
An erect, usually much-branched annual, 5 to 18 inches high, silky-pubescent. Leaves very short petioled, three-foliate, oblanceolate or linear, minutely toothed, blunt and sometimes notched at the ap...
-Goat's-Rue; Wild Sweet Pea - Cracca Virginiana Linnaeus - Plate 108b
Stems from a few inches to nearly 2 feet high, few or many in a dense cluster, erect or nearly so, from a stout, perennial root which is elongated, tough and fibrous. Stems and leaves silky with whiti...
-Coronilla; Axseed; Axwort - Coronilla Varia Linnaeus - Plate 109
Stems ascending or straggling, glabrous and usually much branched, 1 to 3 feet long from perennial roots. Leaves sessile; odd-pinnate; leaflets eleven to twenty-five, oblong or obovate, blunt and mucr...
-The Tick Trefoils Meibomia
The Tick Trefoils are all perennial herbs, often with stout roots, erect, ascending or trailing stems and three-foliolate leaves. The flowers are usually rather small, purplish in terminal or axillary...
-Prostrate Tick Trefoil - Meibomia Michauxii Vail - Plate 110
Stems prostrate, 2 to several feet long, softly pubescent or villous. Leaves petioled; leaflets nearly orbicular, pubescent, 1 to 2 inches long; stipules triangular-ovate, persistent, pointed, striate...
-Large-Bracted Tick Trefoil - Meibomia Bracteosa (Michaux) Kuntze - Plate 111
Stems erect, 2 to 6 feet high, glabrous or pubescent below, finely pubescent above in the panicle. Leaflets 2 to 8 inches long, longer than the petioles, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, long pointed, smoot...
-Dillen's Tick Trefoil - Meibomia Dillenii (Darlington) Kuntze - Plate 112
Stems erect, pubescent with scattered hairs, 2 to 3 feet high. Leaflets rather thin, oval or oblong-ovate, blunt, 1 to 4 inches long, one-half to 1 inches wide, sparingly pubescent or glabrous abo...
-The Bush Clovers - Lespedeza
Herbs, often with perennial roots and erect or ascending stems. In a few species the stems trailing. Leaves three-foliolate. Flowers small, purple or whitish, in axillary clusters, heads or panicles. ...
-Stuve's Bush Clover - Lespedeza Stuvei Nuttall - Plate 113b
Stems erect or nearly so, simple and wandlike or slightly branched, densely velvety or downy-pubescent all over, 2 to 4 feet high; petioles as long as the leaves or usually shorter; leaflets oval, obl...
-Wandlike Bush Clover - Lespedeza Frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton - Plate 114
Stems erect, 1 to 3 feet high, simple or somewhat branched, finely pubescent or nearly smooth; petioles as long as the leaflets or shorter; leaflets oval, oblong or elliptic, blunt, truncate or notche...
-Hairy Bush Clover - Lespedeza Hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann - Plate 113a
Stems rather stiff, erect and usually stout, simple or branched above, densely hairy or softly pubescent, 2 to 5 feet high. Leaflets three, oval or suborbicular, blunt at each end, or often notched at...
-Beach Pea; Seaside Pea - Lathyrus Maritimus (Linnaeus) Bigelow - Plate 115
Root perennial, stem glabrous or nearly so, stout, somewhat fleshy and slightly glaucous, angled, decumbent, 1 to 2 feet long with broad foliaceous, hastate, pointed stipules 1 to 2 inches long. Leave...
-Myrtle-Leaved Marsh Pea - Lathyrus Myrtifolius Muhlenberg - Plate 116
Stems very slender, smooth, angled but not winged, weak, 1 to 3 feet long with obliquely ovate or half-sagittate stipules, one-half to 1 inch long, one-third to one-half of an inch wide and toothed; l...
-Groundnut; Wild Bean - Glycine Apios Linnaeus - Plate 117
Stems slender, hairy or nearly smooth, with milky juice, climbing over herbs and bushes to a height of several feet, from a perennial root-stock of several necklace-shaped, edible tubers. Leaves pinna...
-Wild Or Hog Peanut - Falcata Comoso (Linnaeus) Kuntze - Plate 118a
Stems very slender, simple or somewhat branched, twining and climbing over herbs and shrubs, 1 to 6 feet long, more or less pubescent. Leaves with three rhombic-ovate or broadly ovate leaflets pointed...
-Trailing Wild Bean - Strophostyles Helvola (Linnaeus) Britton - Plate 118b
A twining or trailing and climbing, herbaceous, rough-pubescent vine. Stems more or less branched below, 2 to 7 feet long, or dwarfed and almost erect, from an annual root. Leaves pinnately three-foli...
-Geranium Family - Geraniaceae - Herb Robert; Red Robin - Robertiella Robertiana (Linnaeus) Hanks - (Geranium Robertianum Linnaeus) - Plate 119
Roots mostly biennial, sometimes annual, giving rise to one or several ascending or nearly erect, glandular-pubescent stems 5 to 18 inches high. Entire plant with a strong, disagreeable odor. Leaves r...
-Wild Geranium; Wild Or Spotted Crane's-Bill - Geranium Maculatum Linnaeus - Plate 120
Stems mainly simple from a stout, perennial rootstock, often much branched above, hairy, 10 to 20 inches high. The basal leaves nearly orbicular, broadly heart-shaped, on long leaf-stalks; the blades ...
-Wood Sorrel Family - Oxalidaceae - White Or True Wood Sorrel; Alleluia - Oxalis Acetosella Linnaeus - Plate 107b
Rootstock perennial, slender, scaly and little branched. Leaves basal, three to eight together, each 2 to 6 inches high, pubescent; petioles broadened at the base and jointed. Leaflets three, obcordat...
-Violet Wood Sorrel - Ionoxalis Violacea (Linnaeus) Small - Plate 121a
Flowering stalks and leaves smooth, 3 to 8 inches tall, arising from a perennial, brownish, scaly bulb. Leaves few or several, slender-stemmed, one-half to 1 inches wide. Leaflets three, broader tha...
-Tall Yellow Wood Sorrel - Xanthoxalis Cymosa Small - Plate 121b
Stems ascending or erect, branched above, 6 inches to 3 or 4 feet high and frequently reclining on surrounding vegetation, visually hairy, reddish or brown. Leaves bright green, three-fourths to 1 in...
-Jewelweed Family - Balsaminaceae - Spotted Or Wild Touch-Me-Not - Impatiens Biflora Walter - Plate 122a
A tall, glabrous annual, 2 to 6 feet high and much branched, more or less purplish. Leaves alternate, thin, ovate and elliptic, glaucous beneath, 1 to 3 inches long, blunt, the margins toothed. Flower...
-Pale Touch-Me-Not; Jewelweed - Impatiens Pallida Nuttall - Plate 122b
Resembling the Spotted Touch-me-not, but usually stouter and higher. Flowers pale yellow, sparingly spotted with reddish brown or without spots, 1 to 1 inches long, the saccate sepal dilated-conic, ...
-Milkwort Family - Polygalaceae
A family of small herbs (our species) with alternate, opposite or whorled leaves. Flowers racemose, spicate or capitate, rarely solitary and axillary, sometimes also with cleistogamous and subterranea...
-Orange Milkwort; Wild Bachelor's-Button - Polygala Intea Linnaeus - Plate 123a
Stems annual, smooth, tufted from fibrous roots, erect or ascending, sometimes becoming branched, 6 to 12 inches high. Stem leaves oblong-lanceolate, pointed or blunt, three-fourths to 1 inches long...
-Cross-Leaved Or Marsh Milkwort - Polygala Cruciata Linnaeus - Plate 123b
A small annual, 3 to 15 inches tall, with three or four alternate branches above, the stems angled or square. Leaves all on the stem and mostly verticillate in fours, oblanceolate or linear-lanceolate...
-Field Or Purple Milkwort - Polygala Viridescens Linnaeus - Plate 124a
Stems leafy, branched above, annual, smooth and somewhat angled, 5 to 15 inches high. Leaves all on the stem, oblong to linear-oblong in shape, three-fourths to 1 inches long, one-eighth or one-sixte...
-Seneca Snakeroot; Mountain Flax - Polygala Senega Linnaeus - Plate 125a
Stems usually several from a perennial, woody rootstock, ascending or erect, 5 to 18 inches high, usually simple, occasionally branched above, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves alternate, the lowest ones ...
-Racemed Milkwort - Polygala Polygama Walter - Plate 124b
Stems usually several or many from a deep, slender, perennial root, smooth and simple, 4 to 15 inches high. Leaves crowded along the stems, oblong or broadly lanceolate, blunt, mucronulate, two-thirds...
-Fringed Milkwort; Flowering Wintergreen - Polygala Paucifolia Willdenow - Plate 125b
Flowering and leaf-bearing stems smooth, ascending or erect, 3 to 7 inches high from slender, prostrate, perennial stems and rootstocks which are often several inches in length. Leaves few, clustered ...
-Buckthorn Family - Rhamnaceae - New Jersey Tea; Redroot - Ceanothus Americanus Linnaeus - Plate 126
A low shrub with several or many ascending stems from a deep reddish root. Leaves alternate, ovate or oblong-ovate, 1 to 3 inches long, one-half to1 | inches wide, pointed at the apex, blunt or sligh...
-Mallow Family - Malvaceae - Marsh Mallow; Wymote - Althaea Officinalis Linnaeus - Plate 127
An introduced plant, well established in certain salt marshes along the coast, with erect, herbaceous stems, 2 to 6 feet high from perennial roots, densely velvety-pubescent all over. Leaves ovate, po...
-Musk Mallow; Musk Plant - Malva Moschata Linnaeus - Plate 128
Stems erect, 1 to 2 feet high, more or less branching and hairy, from a perennial root. Leaves orbicular in outline, 3 to 4 inches broad with several broad, rounded, toothed lobes; stem leaves deeply...
-Swamp Rose Mallow; Mallow Rose - Hibiscus Moscheutos Linnaeus - Plate 129
Stems tall and canelike from a perennial root, 3 to 6 feet high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovate, blunt or rounded and often slightly heart-shaped at the base, pointed or blunt at the apex, 3 to 5 in...
-Saint John's-Wort Family
Hypericaceae A family containing about sixteen species in New York State, mostly herbs, some of them shrubs, chiefly with opposite leaves and yellow or rarely reddish flowers in terminal clusters. In ...
-Great Or Giant Saint John's-Wort - Hypericum Ascyron Linnaeus - Plate 130a
Stems herbaceous, 2 to 5 feet tall from a perennial root, angled, branching and smooth. Leaves sessile, ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 5 inches long and three-fourths to 1 inches wide, clasp...
-Elliptic-Leaved Or Pale Saint John's-Wort - Hypericum Ellipticum Hooker - Plate 130b
Stems herbaceous, slightly four-angled, mainly simple or with a few branches, erect, 6 to 20 inches high from a perennial root. Leaves oval or elliptic, sessile, spreading, thin in texture, three-four...
-Common Saint John's-Wort - Hypericum Perforatum Linnaeus - Plate 131a
Stems herbaceous, smooth, slender, 1 to 2 feet high from a perennial root, usually much branched and with several barren shoots at the base. Leaves sessile, linear or oblong, one-half to 1 inch long, ...
-Rockrose Family - Cistaceae Frostweed; Rockrose - Crocanthemum Canadense (Linnaeus) Britton - Plate 131b
Stems erect or diffuse from a perennial root, 5 to 20 inches high, finely canescent and becoming branched. Leaves nearly sessile, linear-oblong to oblanceolate, one-half to 1 inches long, one-third ...
-Woolly Hudsonia; False Heather - Hudsonia Tomentosa Nuttall - Plate 132a
A diffusely branched, low-tufted or matted perennial, somewhat woody, 3 to 8 inches high, pale and hoary-pubescent, the branches stout and ascending. Leaves small and scalelike, about one-tenth or one...
-Violet Family - Violaceae
Because of their abundance and beauty, the violets take rank with the favorites among our native flowers. Our species of violets are all low herbs, either leafy-stemmed or stemless, that is, the leave...
-Bird's-Foot Violet - Viola Pedata Linnaeus - Plate 133
Leaves nearly smooth from a short, stout, erect rootstock, three-divided, the lateral divisions pedately three to five-parted or cleft, the segments linear to spatulate, often two to four-eleft or too...
-Early Blue Or Palmate-Leaved Violet - Viola Palmata Linnaeus - Plate 134a
Leaves palmately five to eleven-lobed or parted, erect or nearly so, from a thick, usually oblique, simple or branched rootstock, the leaf segments variously toothed or cleft, the middle segment usual...
-Coast Or Britton's Violet - Viola Brittoniana Pollard - Plate 136b
Early leaves reniform to ovate in outline, entire or incised, from a thick, erect rootstock; mature leaves three-parted and the segments two to four-cleft into linear or oblanceolate, acute lobes, the...
-Woolly Blue Violet; Sister Violet - Viola Sororia Willdenow - Plate 135a
Leaves ovate to orbicular from a stout, simple or branched rootstock; petioles and under surfaces of the young leaves, and often the scapes, villous-pubescent; leaf blades blunt or pointed, heart-shap...
-Leconte's Violet - Viola Affinis Leconte - Plate 135b
Foliage nearly or quite smooth; rootstocks slender, branching, or the plants growing in matted clusters. Early leaves narrowly ovate and heart-shaped, more or less long pointed toward the apex, the m...
-Marsh Blue Violet - Viola Cucullata Aiton - Plate 138b
Leaves and stems smooth or nearly so; leaf blades, except the earliest. broadly ovate to reniform, heart-shaped at the base, the margins strongly cucullate (rolled inward) when the leaves are young, t...
-Ovate-Leaved Violet - Viola Fimbriatula J. E. Smith - Plate 137a
Rootstock long and stout, sometimes branching. The earliest leaf blades ovate and blunt; the later ones oblong-ovate, acute, finely pubeso especially beneath, the margins crenulate toward the apex, th...
-Arrow-Leaved Violet - Viola Sagittata Aiton - Plate 137b
Leaves erect from a stout rootstock, smooth, or sometimes ciliati or finely pubescent; their petioles longer than the blades which are lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 1 to 4 inches long, truncate or ...
-Triangle-Leaved Violet - Viola Emarginata (Nuttall) Leconte - Plate 136a
Foliage glabrous, succulent, frequently in dense tufts from stout or matted rootstocks. Leaf blades at flowering time narrowly ovate or triangular, slightly heart-shaped; the later ones broadly ovate ...
-Great-Spurred Or Selkirk's Violet - Viola Selkirkii Pursh - Plate 139a
Leaves and scapes 2 to 4 inches high from a slender rootstock or stolon. Leaf blades thin, crenate margined, ovate to suborbicular, deeply heart-shaped, the basal lobes converging or overlapping; leav...
-Large-Leaved White Violet - Viola Incognita Brainerd - Plate 139b
Foliage somewhat pubescent with soft, white hairs, especially when young, upper leaf surfaces smooth. Leaves ascending from slender root-stocks. Leaf blades at flowering time orbicular or reniform, tw...
-Primrose-Leaved Violet - Viola Primulifolia Linnaeus - Plate 140a
Leaf blades oblong to ovate, obscurely crenate-serrate on the margins, smooth or somewhat hairy, especially toward the base of the petioles; the leaves and flower stalks arising from slender rootstock...
-Lance-Leaved Or Water Violet - Viola Lanceolata Linnaeus - Plate 140b
Foliage smooth and plants usually profusely stoloniferous in late summer, the stolons rooting at the nodes and bearing numerous apetalous flowers; the rootstocks slender. Flowering stalks 2 to 4 inche...
-Smoothish Yellow Violet - Viola Eriocarpa Schweinitz - Plate 134b
Commonly with two to four ascending stems from a single rootstock. Basal leaves often several, long petioled with ovate to reniform blades, smooth except for minute pubescence on the upper part of the...
-Canada Violet - Viola Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 141
Stems 6 to 18 inches high, usually several or many together from a perennial root, smooth or nearly so. Leaves broadly ovate, heart-shaped, pointed at the apex, the margins toothed. Basal leaves numer...
-American Dog Violet - Viola Conspersa Reichenbach - Plate 142b
Usually several stems ascending from an oblique, branched rootstock, 3 to 6 inches long at flowering time. Leaf blades orbicular, heart-shaped, crenate-serrate on the margins, blunt, one-half to 2 inc...
-Long-Spurred Violet - Viola Rostrata Pursh - Plate 142a
Stems usually numerous from an elongated, jointed root stock, 4 to 8 inches high. Leaves orbicular to broadly ovate, heart-shaped, nearly or quite smooth, serrate on the margins, the upper ones pointe...
-Loosestrife Family - Salicariaceae - (Lythraceae)
The Swamp Loosestrife and the Spiked or Purple Loosestrife belong to this family, which in addition to these two species illustrated here, is represented in this State by two smaller flowered species ...
-Swamp Loosestrife; Willow-Herb - Decodon Verticillatus (Linnaeus) Elliott - Plate 143a
An herblike perennial growing usually in swamps or shallow water. Although appearing like an herbaceous plant it is more or less shrubby. The stems are angular, recurved, smooth and somewhat woody bel...
-Spiked Or Purple Loosestrife - Lythrum Salicaria Linnaeus - Plate 143b
Stems four-angled, 2 to 4 feet high or sometimes taller from a perennial root, smooth or somewhat pubescent or tomentose above and more or less branched. Leaves opposite or sometimes in threes, sessil...
-Meadow Beauty Family - Melastomaceae - Meadow Beauty; Deer Grass - Rhexia Virginica Linnaeus - Plate 138a
Stems square, 8 to 18 inches high, the angles of the stem usually slightly winged, hairy or nearly smooth; roots perennial and fibrous with a few small Lythrum salicaria tubers. Leaves opposite, sessi...
-Regents of the University With Years When Terms Expire (revised)
(Revised to July I, i9i8) 1926 Pliny T. Sexton LL.B. LL.D. Chancellor - - - Palmyra 1927 Albert Vander Veer M.D. M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. Albany Vice Chancellor 192...
-Evening Primrose Family - Epilobiaceae (Onagraceae) - Seedbox; Rattlebox - Ludwigia Altemifolia Linnaeus - Plate 144b
Stems erect or nearly erect, branching, 11/2 to 3 feet high, from a perennial root which often bears small tubers; the stems smooth or minutely pubescent and more or less angled. Leaves alternate, lan...
-Fireweed; Great Or Spiked Willow-Herb - Chamaenerion Angustifolium (Linnaeus) Scopoli - Plate 144b
Stems slender or rather stout, 2 to 7 feet high, from a perennial root, smooth below, usually finely pubescent above. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, finely toothed or entire, 2 to 7 inches long, one-th...
-Great Hairy Willow-Herb - Epilobium Hirsutum Linnaeus - Plate 144a
Stems stout and softly hairy, 2 to 5 feet high from perennial roots, propagating by underground shoots. Leaves usually opposite, sometimes alternate, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, sessile or even c...
-Common Evening Primrose - Oenothera Biennis Linnaeus - Plate 145a
Stems stout, wandlike and simple or somewhat branched, 1 to 6 feet high from a biennial root. Stems and leaves somewhat hairy. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, sessile, 2 to 6 inches long, the l...
-Northern Evening Primrose Oenothera Muricata Linnaeus - Plate 146
A slender plant resembling the common Evening Primrose but usually less branched and more slender-stemmed, 2 to 3 feet high, the stem puberu-lent and covered with scattered hairs which are enlarged at...
-Common Sundrops Kneiffia Fruticosa (Linnaeus) Raimann - Plate 147a
Stems erect, 1 to 3 feet high and usually rnore or less branched, hairy or nearly smooth. Leaves lanceolate or broader, sometimes oval-lanceolate, usually pointed at the apex and narrowed at the sessi...
-Biennial Gaura - Gaura Biennis Linnaeus - Plate 148
Stems slender, erect, 2 to 5 feet high, branched, especially above, and downy or softly hairy. Leaves alternate, sessile, narrow, pointed at both ends, remotely toothed on the margins, 2 to 4 inches l...
-Ginseng Family - Araliaceae Dwarf Ginseng Or Groundnut - Panax Trifolium Linnaeus - Plate 132b
A small, smooth herb, 3 to 6 inches high from a deep-seated, globose, perennial tuber, one-half of an inch or less in diameter and very pungent to the taste. Leaves three, at the summit of the slender...
-Carrot Family - Ammiaceae - Hemlock Water Parsnipsium Cicutaefolium Schrank - Plate 149
A perennial, smooth marsh herb with stout, erect, branching hollow stem, 2 to 6 feet high. Lower and basal leaves long petioled, finely divided; petioles sheathing the stem at their bases; segments of...
-Dogwood Family - Cornaceae Low Or Dwarf Cornel; Bunchberry - Corn Us Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 150
Flowering and leaf-bearing stems 3 to 9 inches high, from slender, underground, horizontal, perennial rootstocks which are somewhat woody. Leaves five to nine in number, whorled at the summit of the u...
-White Alder Family - Clethraceae Sweet Pepper Bush; White Alder - Clethra Alnifolia Linnaeus - Plate 147b
A much-branched shrub, 3 to 9 feet high with finely canescent twigs. Leaves obovate, blunt or pointed at the apex, narrowed or tapering at the base, sharply toothed, smooth or nearly so and green on b...
-Wintergreen Family - Pyrolaceae - Bog Wintergreen - Pyrola Uliginosa Torrey - Plate 151a
Leaves all basal, the blades orbicular or broadly oval, dull green, thick in texture, somewhat evergreen, blunt or rounded at the apex, 1 to 2 inches long, the margins very obscurely crenulate, petiol...
-Shinleaf - Pyrola Elliptica Nuttall - Plate 151b
Leaves broadly oval or elliptical, not evergreen, rather thin and dark green, blunt, rounded or narrowed at the base, the margins wavy or plicate-crenulate with very low teeth; 11/2 to 4 inches long, ...
-Round-Leaved American Wintergreen - Pyrola Americana Sweet - Figure XX
Flowering scape 6 to 20 inches high with five to twenty flowers in a terminal raceme, the flowers in the axils of small bracts. Leaves basal, orbicular or oval, spreading, blunt, thick in texture, eve...
-Pipsissewa; Prince's Pine - Chimaphila Umbellata (Linnaeus) Barton - Plate 152a
Stems trailing, creeping, branching and more or less horizontally subterranean and perennial, slightly woody in texture, sending up both leafy and flowering branches which are erect and 5 to 12 inches...
-Indian Pipe Family - Monotropaceae - Indian Pipe; Or Corpse Plant Monotropa Uniflora Linnaeus - Plate 152b And Figure XXI
A white, scapose, succulent plant growing usually in clusters from a mass of matted, brittle roots, attached to partially decayed organic matter in the soil; stems 4 to 10 inches high, erect, each wit...
-Pinesap; False Beechdrops - Hypopitys Americana ( Decandolle) Small - Plate 153a
Entire plant lemon-yellow or faintly pink in color, hairy, 3 to 10 inches tall from a dense mass of fleshy root-fibers. Stems scaly, the scales crowded on the lower part of the stems, one-eighth to on...
-Heath Family - Ericaceae - Purple Or Pink Azalea; Pinkster Flower - Azalea Nudiflora Linnaeus - Plate 154
A much-branched shrub, 2 to 8 feet high, the twigs smooth or with some stiff hairs. Leaves thin, alternate, mostly clustered near the ends of the twigs, obovate or oblong, pointed at both ends, hairy ...
-Mountain Or Hoary Azalea - Azalea Canescens Michaux - Figure XXII
A branching shrub, 3 to 10 feet high with oval, elliptic or obovate leaves, wider and shorter than those of the Pinkster, conspicuously soft-hairy beneath, rarely nearly smooth. Flowers rose color to ...
-Great Laurel; Rose Bay - Rhododendron Maximum Linnaeus - Figure XXIII
A large shrub, in the south sometimes almost treelike. Leaves evergreen, thick, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, dark green on both sides, sharply pointed at the apex, usually narrowed towar...
-Labrador Tea Ledum Groenlandicum Oeder - Plate 155a
A small, much-branched shrub, a few inches to 4 feet high with densely tomentose twigs. Leaves oblong, blunt, sessile, thick and evergreen, somewhat fragrant when crushed, 1 to 2 inches long, one-four...
-Sheep Laurel; Lambkill; Wicky Kalmia Angustifolia Linnaeus - Plate 160a
A small shrub, 6 to 24 inches high, sometimes taller, simple or with a few nearly erect branches. Leaves opposite or in threes, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, blunt or pointed at the apex, petioles shor...
-Mountain Laurel; Calico Bush - Kalmia Litifolia Linnaeus - Plate 156a
A much-branched shrub with stiff branches, 3 to 15 feet high, often forming dense thickets. In the south it sometimes attains the size of a small tree. Leaves smooth, oval or elliptic to ovate-lanceol...
-Pale Or Swamp Laurel - Kalmia Polifolia Wangenheim - Plate 156b
A small shrub, 6 inches to 21/2 feet high with erect or ascending branches and two-edged twigs. Leaves opposite, rarely in threes, nearly sessile, oblong or linear-oblong, blunt at the apex, green abo...
-Leatherleaf; Dwarf Cassandra - Chamaedaphne Calyculata (Linnaeus) Moench - Plate 157a
A small, erect shrub with numerous branches, 1 to 4 feet high. Leaves alternate, leathery but rather thin, evergreen, very short petioled, blunt or pointed, oblanceolate or oblong in shape, covered on...
-Wild Rosemary; Marsh Holy Rose; Moorwort Andromeda Poll'Folia Linnaeus - Plate 159a
A small bog shrub, 1 to 3 feet high, simple or with a few branches. Leaves linear to oblong-lanceolate, pointed or blunt at the apex, narrowed at the base, the margins strongly revolute, dark green ab...
-Staggerbush Neopieris Mariana (Linnaeus) Britton - Plate 155b
A small, smooth shrub with erect or nearly erect, wandlike branches, I to 4 feet high. Leaves oval to oblong, smooth above, slightly hairy on the veins and also black-dotted beneath, pointed at the ap...
-Trailing Arbutus; Mayflower Epigaea Repens Linnaeus - Plate 153b
A prostrate, perennial, slightly woody plant, more or less hairy, especially on the new stems and leaves, extensively spreading on the ground and often forming patches of considerable size. Leaves ova...
-Creeping Or Spicy Wintergreen; Checkerberry Gaultheria Procumbens Linnaeus - Plate 158b
A low, aromatic, semiwoody plant with creeping or subterranean, perennial stems, branches erect or nearly so, 2 to 6 inches high, bearing several oval, oblong or obovate, blunt or pointed, thick, ever...
-Huckleberry Family - Vacciniaceae - Dwarf Huckleberry; Gopherberry - Gaylussacia Dumosa (Andrews) Torrey & Gray - Plate 157b
A low, branching shrub, 1 to 2 feet high from a horizontal or spreading base and woody rootstock, the branches erect or nearly so, usually leafless below, the young parts glandular and pubescent. Leav...
-Large Or American Cranberry - Oxycoccus Macrocarpus (Aiton) Pursh - Plate 158a
A trailing bog plant with perennial, somewhat woody, slender, creeping stems, rooting at the nodes, the branches 5 to 10 inches long, and ascending, forming dense mats or thickly interwoven with moss ...
-Primrose Family - Primulaceae - Mistassini Or Dwarf Canadian Primrose - Primula Mistassinica Michaux - Plate 159b
A small, perennial, scapose herb, 1 to 6 inches high. Leaves all basal, spatulate to rhombic-ovate or obovate in shape, green on both sides, somewhat toothed, blunt at the apex, tapering at the base, ...
-Crosswort; Whorled Loosestrife Lysimachia Quadrifolia Linnaeus - Plate 160b
Stems usually simple, slender, erect, 1 to 21/2 feet high, more or less pubescent. Leaves whorled, usually in fours or fives, sometimes the lower ones opposite, sessile or nearly so, lanceolate to ova...
-Bulb-Bearing Loosestrife; Swamp Candles - Lysimachia Terrestris (Linnaeus) Britton, Sterns & Poggenberg - Plate 161b
Stem simple or sparingly branched, erect, smooth, 8 to 20 inches high. Leaves usually opposite, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sharp pointed at both ends, nearly sessile and usually dotted with blac...
-Moneywort; Creeping Loosestrife - Lysimachia Nummularia Linnaeus - Plate 164a
Stems creeping and usually rooting at the nodes, 1 to 2 feet long or longer, smooth. Leaves opposite, broadly oval or orbicular, one-half to 11/2 inches long, with short petioles. Flowers two-thirds t...
-Fringed Loosestrife - Steironema Ciliatum (Linnaeus) Rafinesque - Plate 162
Stems simple or sparingly branched, erect, smooth, 1 to 31/2 feet high. Leaves opposite, thin, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharp pointed at the apex, blunt to slightly heart-shaped at the base, 2 to 6 ...
-Tufted Loosestrife - Naumburgia Thrysiflora (Linnaeus) Duby - Plate 163
Stems mainly simple, often several together from a slender, perennial rootstock, 1 to 21/2 feet high, smooth or slightly pubescent. Leaves opposite, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pointed at the ape...
-Star Flower; Chickweed Wintergreen - Trientalis Borealis Rafinesque (T. Americana Pursh) - Plate 165b
Stems (rootstocks) buried, creeping and horizontal, several inches long, sending up simple branches, 3 to 9 inches high, each of which bears a whorl of five to ten leaves at the summit, and a few scal...
-Plumbago Family - Plumbaginaceae - Seaside Lavender; Marsh Rosemary; Canker-Root - Limonium Carolinianum (Walter) Britton - Plate 166b
A rather fleshy, smooth plant of salt meadows near the coast, with a thick tapering or branched, astringent root. Flower-bearing scapes slender, much branched above, 6 to 18 inches high. Leaves all at...
-Gentian Family - Gentianaceae - Sea Or Marsh Pink - Sabbatia Stellaris Pursh - Plate 166a
A small, herbaceous plant with stems slightly four-angled below, 5 to 20 inches high and with numerous alternate branches toward the summit. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear, opposite, sessile, blun...
-The Large Marsh Pink (Sabbatia dodecandra (Linnaeus) Brit-ton, Sterns & Poggenberg), (Figure XXIV)
The Large Marsh Pink (Sabbatia dodecandra (Linnaeus) Brit-ton, Sterns & Poggenberg), (figure XXIV) has eight to twelve corolla segments, and is occasionally found in the salt marshes along the coast, ...
-Fringed Gentian - Gentiana Crinita Linnaeus - Plate 167
Stems somewhat angled, leafy and often with numerous opposite branches above, 1 to 3 feet high from a fibrous root which is usually biennial. Leaves obovate and blunt below, the upper leaves 1 to 2 in...
-The Stiff Gentian (Gentiana quinquefolia Linnaeus), (Figure XXV)
The Stiff Gentian (Gentiana quinquefolia Linnaeus), (Figure XXV) has smaller flowers in dense clusters at the ends of the branches; the blue corolla tube is one-half to three-fourths of an inch long w...
-Closed Blue Or Blind Gentian - Dasystephana Andrewsii (Grisebach) Small - Plate 168
Stems stout, smooth, I to 2 feet high, and usually unbranched, from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, ovate to lanceolate, three to seven-nerved, pointed at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the sessi...
-Bnckbean Family - Menyanthaceae Buckbean; Marsh Trefoil - Menyanthes Trifoliata Linnaeus - Plate 169
Rootstock creeping, scaly, thick, often a foot or more long. Leaves erect or ascending from the growing end of the rootstock, 2 to 10 inches long, divided into three leaflets, the petioles sheathing t...
-Dogbane Family - Apocynaceae - Spreading Dogbane - Apocynum Androsaemifoliitm Linnaeus - Plate 170a
A rather slender, branching herb with perennial, horizontal rootstock and stems 1 to 4 feet high, with milky juice. Leaves entire, opposite, ovate or oval, pointed at the apex, narrowed or rounded at ...
-Milkweed Family
Asclepiadaceae The Milkweeds are familiar and well-known plants, but in order to distinguish some of the closely related species, a special study of the flower structure is necessary. They are perenni...
-Butterfly Weed; Pleurisy Root - Asdepias Tuberosa Linnaeus - Plate 171
Stems very hairy, rather stout, usually branched above, erect or ascending, 1 to 2 feet high from a stout, perennial root, with slightly milky sap. Leaves alternate, oblong to lanceolate, pointed or b...
-Swamp Milkweed Asclepias Incarnata Linnaeus - Plate 172
Stems slender, often 2 to 5 feet tall and leafy throughout, more or less branched, smooth or minutely pubescent in two lines along the upper part of the stem. Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, point...
-Blunt-Leaved Milkweed - Asclepias Amplexicaulis J. E. Smith - Plate 173
Stems stout, erect or nearly so, smooth, pale green and glaucous, rarely somewhat pubescent, 2 to 3 feet high. Leaves opposite, oblong-ovate or oblong, blunt and minutely pointed at the apex, cordate-...
-Four-Leaved Milkweed - Asclepias Quodrifolia Jacquin - Plate 174
Stems rather slender, rarely branched, 1 to 2 feet high. Leaves thin, slightly pubescent on the veins beneath, ovate to lanceolate, 2 to 6 inches long, one-half to 2 inches wide, long pointed at the a...
-Common Milkweed; Silkweed - Asclepias Syriaca Linnaeus - Plate 175
Stems stout, rarely branched, 2 to 5 feet high, finely pubescent above. Leaves oblong to ovate, finely but densely hairy beneath, smooth above when mature, pointed or blunt at the apex, rounded or sli...
-Morning-Glory Family - Convolvulaceae - Upright Or Low Bindweed - Convolvulus Spithamacus Linnaeus - Plate 164b
Stems erect or ascending, sometimes the tip of the stem feebly twining, 5 to 15 inches high, hairy or in late summer becoming nearly smooth. Leaves alternate, oval, short petioled or the upper leaves ...
-Hedge Or Great Bindweed - Convolvulus Septum Linnaeus - Plate 176
Stems high, twining or trailing, often several feet long, smooth or sometimes slightly hairy. Leaves triangular in outline, slender petioled, hastate at the base, pointed at the apex, 2 to 5 inches lo...
-Dodder Family - Cuscutaceae - Gronovius's Dodder; Love Vine - Cuscuta Gronovii Willdenow - Plate 170b
A slender, herbaceous annual with yellowish or orange-colored stems, climbing over and around various shrubs and herbs. Flowers numerous, short-stalked in dense clusters. Calyx five-lobed without brac...
-Phlox Family - Polemoniaceae - Garden Phlox - Phlox Paniculata Linnaeus - Plate 177
Stems stout or slender, erect, simple or somewhat branched above, smooth or slightly pubescent, 11/2 to 5 feet tall, usually several stems from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, entire, thin, oblong ...
-Ground Or Moss Pink - Phlox Subulata Linnaeus - Plate 178
Stems densely tufted and extensively branched, forming mats, often of considerable extent, pubescent or nearly smooth. Leaves linear-lanceolate, one-third to 1 inch long, stiff and clustered at the no...
-The Wild Blue Phlox (Phlox divaricata Linnaeus) (Figure XXVI)
The Wild Blue Phlox (Phlox divaricata Linnaeus) (Figure XXVI) is frequent in some localities. It is finely viscid-pubescent, the stems rooting at the nodes near the base, but the tops erect; leaves ob...
-American Jacob's Ladder - Polemonium Van-Bruntiae Britton - Plate 179
Stems herbaceous, erect, smooth below, a little pubescent above, 1 to 3 feet tall, from a stout, horizontal, perennial rootstock clothed with numerous fibrous roots. Basal leaves 6 to 12 inches long, ...
-Waterleaf Family - Hydrophyllaceae Virginia Waterleaf - Hydropliylhtm Virginianum Linnaeus - Plate 180
Stems slender, smooth or but slightly pubescent, usually unbranched, ascending or erect but not stiff, 1 to 3 feet long, from a perennial, scaly rootstock. Lower and basal leaves, 6 to 10 inches long,...
-Borage Family - Boraginaceae - Virginia Cowslip; Bluebells - Mertensia Virginica (Linnaeus) De Candolle - Plate 181
Stems erect or nearly erect, simple or somewhat branched, 1 to 2 feet tall from a perennial root; smooth and rather stout. Leaves oblong, the upper ones sessile, blunt at the apex, 2 to 5 inches long,...
-Forget-Me-Not; Mouse-Ear; Scorpion Grass - Myosotis Scorpioides Linnaeus - Plate 182a
A small, slender plant with perennial rootstocks or stolons freely rooting at the nodes; stems pubescent, decumbent below, the ends ascending or erect, 6 to 18 inches long. Leaves oblong to oblong-lan...
-Blueweed; Viper's Bugloss - Echium Vulgare Linnaeus - Plate 161a
A very bristly-hairy, biennial, herbaceous weed, with a long, black taproot, the erect, spotted stem 1 to 21/2 feet high and finally much branched. Leaves entire, hairy, oblong to linear-lanceolate, 2...
-Vervain Family - Verbenaceae - Blue Or False Vervain - Verbena Hastata Linnaeus - Plate 183b
Stems erect, stiff, four-sided and usually branched, roughish pubescent, 2 to 7 feet tall from a perennial root. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, pointed at the apex, sharply toothed, 3 to 6 in...
-Mint Family - Labiatae - Hairy Germander Or Wood Sage - Teucrium Occidentale A. Gray - Plate 184
Stems erect, four-angled, hairy, slender or rather stout, usually branched with ascending branches, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, thin, pointed at the apex, sharply toothed, rounded at th...
-Blue Curls; Bastard Pennyroyal - Tricliostema Dichotomum Linnaeus - Plate 182b
A small, annual, minutely viscid-pubescent plant, with rather stiff, much-branched stems, 6 to 20 inches high, the branches spreading or ascending. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, rather blunt at ...
-Mad-Dog Or Blue Skullcap - Scutellaria Lateriflora Linnaeus - Plate 185
Stems slender, erect or ascending, leafy and usually branched, 5 to 25 inches high, from a perennial root, propagating by slender stolons. Leaves ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, thin, pointed at the...
-Hooded Or Marsh Skullcap - Scutellaria Galericulata Linnaeus - Plate 186a
Stem erect and usually branched, 1 to 3 feet high, finely pubescent, from a perennial root, propagating by threadlike stolons but not tuber-bearing. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, thin, sho...
-Self-Heal; Heal-All - Prunella Vulgaris Linnaeus - Plate 187
Stems slender, procumbent or ascending, rooting at the nodes below, the tips at least erect and simple or branched, 3 to 20 inches high, pubescent or nearly smooth and four-angled. Leaves ovate, oblon...
-Dragonhead; Lion's Heart - Dracocephalum Virginianum Linnaeus - Plate 188
Stems erect or the base somewhat decumbent, slender or stout, simple or usually branched above, 1 to 4 feet tall. Leaves firm, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, sessile or the lowest ones petioled, sha...
-Oswego Tea; American Bee Balm - Monarda Didyma Linnaeus - Plate 189
Stems slender or rather stout, pubescent or nearly smooth, 2 to 4 feet high from a perennial root, simple or sparingly branched above. Leaves thin, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, usually pubescent, at lea...
-Wild Bergamot - Monarda Fistulosa Linnaeus - Plate 190a
Stems slender, usually branched, especially above, 2 to 3 feet high, hairy or nearly smooth, from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, narrowed or heart-shaped at the base. Flower clusters s...
-Purple Bergamot - Monarda Media Willdenow - Plate 190b
Resembling the common Wild Bergamot, but usually very sparingly hairy or nearly smooth and bright green; bracts of the inflorescence deep purple and very conspicuous; the flowers purple or purple-red ...
-Field Or Wild Basil; Basilweed - Clinopodium Vulgare Linnaeus - Plate 186b
Stems slender, erect from an ascending base which is perennial by short, creeping stolons, hairy, usually branched or sometimes simple, 10 to 24 inches high. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, short pe...
-Hoary Mountain Mint; Calamint - Koellia Incana (Linnaeus) Kuntze - Plate 183a
Stems rather stout, 11/2 to 31/2 feet high, finely pubescent or smooth below. Leaves thin, opposite, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pointed at the apex, sharply toothed, 11/2 to 3 inches long, the upper l...
-American Wild Mint - Aleut Ha Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 191a
Stems slender, erect, simple or sometimes branched, more or less hairy or nearly smooth, 6 to 25 inches high, from a perennial root which propagates by suckers. Leaves opposite, oblong to oblong-lance...
-Stoneroot; Richweed; Horse Balm - Collinsonia Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 192
Stems rather stout, erect, more or less branched, 1 to 4 feet high, from a large, thick, hard and woody perennial root, smooth or with some glandular pubescence above. Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, bl...
-Potato Family - Solanaceae - Clammy Ground Cherry - Physalis Heterophylla Nees Von Esenbeck - Plate 193
Stems erect, becoming decumbent and spreading, 1 to 3 feet high, from a perennial, slender, creeping rootstock, viscid, glandular and hairy with long-spreading, jointed, flat hairs. Leaves alternate, ...
-The Jamestown or Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium Linnaeus) (Figure XXVII)
The Jamestown or Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium Linnaeus) (Figure XXVII) is a stout, smooth annual plant, 1 to 5 feet high; large, thin, ovate leaves with irregularly lobed margins; flowers white or v...
-Climbing Or Bitter Nightshade; Bittersweet - Solatium Dulcamara Linnaeus - Plate 194a
A climbing vine, herbaceous above, usually somewhat woody and perennial below, smooth or pubescent, branching, 2 to 8 feet long. Leaves petioled, ovate or hastate, three-lobed or sometimes entire or o...
-Fig-Wort Family - Scrophulariaceae - White Mullen - Verbascum Lychnitis Linnaeus - Plate 195a
Stems stout, angled, branched above, 2 to 5 feet high, densely covered, as well as the lower surface of the leaves, with a white pubescence. Leaves oblong, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, the margins cren...
-Moth Mullen - Verbascum Blattaria Linnaeus - Plate 195b
Stems erect, stiff, smooth or slightly glandular-pubescent, usually simple but occasionally branched, 2 to 6 feet high. Leaves oblong, ovate or lanceolate, toothed or cut on the margins, sharp pointed...
-Butter And Eggs; Ramstead - Linaria Linaria (Linnaeus) Karsten - Plate 196
A slender-stemmed, herbaceous plant, 1 to 3 feet high from a deep, perennial root, stems erect, with sessile, narrowly linear leaves which are pale green or glaucous, one-half to 11/2 inches long, or ...
-Turtlehead; Snakehead; Balmony - Chelone Glabra Linnaeus - Plate 197
Stems slender, smooth, erect and stiff, 1 to 3 feet high from a perennial root, simple or with erect or ascending branches. Leaves opposite, short petioled, linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, with...
-Hairy Beardtongue - Pentstemon Hirsutus (Linnaeus) Willdenow - Plate 198
A slender-stemmed, erect herb, 1 to 3 feet high from a perennial root. Stems downy, puberulent or hairy, usually several from a root. Leaves puberulent or smooth; the pedicels, calyx and corolla pubes...
-The Smooth Beardtongue (Pentstemon Pentstemon (Linnaeus) Britton (Figure XXVIII)
The Smooth Beardtongue (Pentstemon pentstemon (Linnaeus) Britton (figure XXVIII), P. laevigatus Solander) is smooth except the somewhat glandular inflorescence; the tube of the corolla gradually enlar...
-Square-Stemmed Monkey Flower - Mimulus Ringens Linnaeus - Plate 191b
Stems smooth, four-angled, erect, 1 to 3 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, oblong to lanceolate in shape, with serrate margins, acute at the apex, sessile or auricled-clasping at the b...
-Golden Hedge Hyssop; Goldenpert - Gratiola Aurea Muhlenberg - Plate 199a
Stems decumbent, creeping, ascending at the ends, simple or usually branched, 4 to 12 inches long, from a perennial root. Leaves lanceolate to linear-oblong, one-half to 1 inch long, sessile and somew...
-American Brooklime; Speedwell - Veronica Am Ericana Schweinitz - Plate 199b
A rather small, smooth herb, with creeping stems and perennial root-stock freely rooting at the nodes, the ends erect, 6 inches to 3 feet long. Leaves opposite and petioled, oblong, ovate or oblong-la...
-Culver's Root; Bowman's Root; Beaumont's Root - Leptandra Virginica (Linnaeus) Nuttall - Plate 200
A tall, stout, erect herb with smooth stems, branched only at the inflorescence, 2 to 7 feet high. Leaves whorled, three to nine leaves at a node or some of the upper ones opposite, lanceolate or oblo...
-Fern-Leaved False Foxglove; Fever-Flower - Aureolaria Pedicularia (Linnaeus) Rafinesque (Gerardia Pedicularia Linnaeus) - Plate 201
Stems rather slender and much branched, leafy, erect or spreading-ascending, 1 to 4 feet high, glandular-pubescent, viscid and somewhat hairy. Leaves sessile or the lower ones petioled, pinnately divi...
-Smooth False Foxglove - Aureolaria Glauca (Eddy) Rafinesque (Gerardia Quercifolia Pursh; Gerardia Virginica Britton, Sterns & Poggen-Berg; Gray's Manual, Ed. 7, 730, 1908. Gerardia Glauca Eddy, Med. Repos. N. Y. Rex 2, V. 126. 1808) - Plate 202
Stems rather stout, stiff, smooth and often purplish with a whitish or glaucous bloom, usually branched, 2 to 5 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves usually petioled, ovate or ovate-lanceolate in o...
-Large Purple Gerardia - Agalinis Purpurea (Linnaeus) Pennell (Gerardia Purpurea Linnaeus) - Plate 203
Stems slender or rather stout, branched, annual, smooth or somewhat roughish, 8 to 25 inches high with ascending or spreading branches. Leaves opposite, narrowly linear, 1 to 2 inches long. Flowers pu...
-Slender Gerardia Agalinis Tenuifolia (Vahl) Rafinesque (Gerardia Tenuifolia Vahl.) - Plate 204
An annual, smooth herb with very slender stems, 6 to 24 inches high, and narrow, flat leaves one-half to 11/4 inches long which become blackened in drying. Stem branched, especially above, the branche...
-Swamp Lousewort - Pcdicularis Lanceolata Michaux - Plate 206a
Stems rather stout, simple or usually somewhat branched above with ascending branches, smooth, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves sessile, opposite or some of them alternate, narrowly lanceolate, 2 to 5 inches ...
-Wood Or Head Betony; Lousewort - Pedicularis Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 205
Stems usually several together from a perennial root, erect or ascending, 6 to 18 inches high, hairy. Leaves rather thick, oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long, at least the lower on slender petioles...
-Narrow-Leaved Cowwheat - Melampyrum Lincare Lamarck - Plate 165a
A low, slender herb, 6 to 18 inches high; stem slender, puberulent, with opposite, wide-spreading branches. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate to ovate, opposite on the stem, short petioled, 1 to ...
-Bladder-Wort Family
Lentibulariaceae The Bladderworts, of which there are at least fourteen species in New York, form a very interesting group of plants. Few of them, however, have conspicuous flowers. Nearly all of them...
-Utricularia Fibrosa Flat-Leaved Bladderwort - Utricularia Intermedia Hayne - Plate 206b
Stems aquatic, rooted in shallow water, the horizontally submerged branches radiating from the base of the scape. Leaves alternate, one-fourth to two-thirds of an inch long, three-forked at the base, ...
-Broom Rape Family - Orobanchaceae - Pale Or Naked Broom Rape; Cancer-Root - Thalesia Uniflora (Linnaeus) Britton - Figure XXX
Stems nearly subterranean, forming a dense mat, often several inches in extent, parasitic upon the roots of various plants, bearing several ovate-oblong scales and one to four slender, erect, glandula...
-Squawroot; Cancer-Root - Conopholis Americdna (Carl Von Linne) Wallroth - Figure XXXI
Plants smooth, 3 to 10 inches high, from a thickened base, densely scaly, light brown, usually clustered, covered all over with stiff, overlapping scales. Upper scales lanceolate or ovate, pointed, on...
-Beechdrops Leptamnium Virginianum (Linnaeus) Rafinesque - Figure XXXII
Stems erect, rather stiff and branching, slender, smooth, yellowish brown or purplish yellow, 6 to 20 inches high from a thick, scaly base, the roots fibrous and brittle; scales few and small. Flowers...
-Acanthus Family - Acanthaceae Water Willow - Dianthera Americana Linnaeus - Plate 207
Stems erect, grooved and angled, 1 to 4 feet high, slender and usually simple or slightly branched above, smooth. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 3 to 8 inches long, one-fourth to 1 inch wide, entire, ses...
-Lopseed Family - Phrymaceae - Lopseed - Phryma Leptostachya Linnaeus - Plate 208
A rather slender, perennial herb with erect, puberulent, somewhat four-angled stem, branched above, 1 to 3 feet high, the branches slender and opposite. Leaves opposite, thin, ovate, pointed at the ap...
-Madder Family - Rubiaceae Bluets; Innocence; Eyebright - Houstonia Coerulea Linnaeus - Plate 209b
Stems erect or nearly so, smooth, perennial by slender rootstocks and forming dense tufts. Lower and basal leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, about one-half of an inch long or less, sometimes slightly ...
-Long-Leaved Houstonia - Houstonia Longifolia Gaertner - Plate 194b
A small, low, tufted perennial, smooth or somewhat pubescent, 5 to 10 inches high. Basal leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, blunt and short petioled, but not ciliate. Stem leaves opposite, linear-oblon...
-Buttonbush; Bush Globeflower - Cephalanthus Occidcutalis Linnaeus - Plate 210
A shrub, 3 to 10 feet high, rarely treelike and taller; branches smooth or somewhat pubescent. Leaves opposite or in whorls, petioled, entire, oval or ovate, pointed at the apex, rounded or narrowed a...
-Partridge Berry; Twinberry; Squawberry - Mitchella Rcpcus Linnaeus - Plate 211b
A small, creeping, evergreen herb, with slender, trailing stems, freely rooting at the nodes, 6 to 15 inches long, with numerous branches. Leaves dark green, opposite, short petioled, ovate-orbicular,...
-Rough Bedstraw - Galium Asprellum Michaux - Plate 212a
A weak, perennial herb, much branched and usually reclining on bushes or surrounding vegetation, sometimes erect; stems retrorsely hispid on the angles, 2 to 6 feet long. Leaves in whorls of sixes or ...
-Northern Bedstraw - Galium Boreale Linnaeus - Plate 209a
Stems erect, smooth, rather stiff, sharply angled, simple or branched, 1 to 21/2 feet high, usually a few or several stems from a perennial root. Leaves in fours, lanceolate or linear, entire, conspic...
-Honeysuckle Family - Capri Foliaceae - Twinflower; Deer Vine - Linnaea Americana Forbes - Plate 213a
A creeping and trailing, slender, vinelike plant, with scarcely woody, perennial stems, 6 to 24 inches long, slightly pubescent. Leaf blades evergreen, opposite, rounded or obovate, obscurely crenate ...
-Trumpet Or Coral Honeysuckle - Lonicera Sempervirens Linnaeus - Plate 214a
A slender, high-climbing vine with glabrous or somewhat hairy stems and foliage. Leaves oval, the uppermost usually united around the stem, the lower ones smaller, narrower and somewhat pointed at the...
-Swamp Fly Honeysuckle - Lonicera Oblongifolia (Goldie) Hooker - Plate 214b
An erect, branching shrub, 2 to 8 feet high, the branches and twigs with opposite, elliptical or elliptical-oblong leaves, rather thick and firm when mature, glaucous and reticulate-veined, smooth whe...
-The Blue Or Mountain Fly Honeysuckle (Lonicera Caerulea Linnaeus) (Figure XXXIII)
The Blue or Mountain Fly Honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea Linnaeus) (figure XXXIII) occurs in swamps and low grounds, chiefly in the Adirondacks. It is a small shrub with oval or obovate, blunt leaves a...
-The Smooth-leaved or Glaucous Honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica Linnaeus) (Figure XXXIV)
The Smooth-leaved or Glaucous Honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica Linnaeus) (figure XXXIV) of rocky woodlands and sometimes in swamps, is smooth throughout, twining or climbing, the upper leaves united aroun...
-Bush Honeysuckle - Diervilla diervilla (Linnaeus) MacMillan - Plate 212b
A low shrub with opposite leaves and branches, 1 to 4 feet high, smooth or nearly so. Leaves ovate or oval, long pointed at the apex, usually rounded at the base, 2 to 5 inches long, irregularly crenu...
-Teasel Family - Dipsacaceae - Common or Card Teasel - Dipsacus sylvestris Hudson - Plate 215a
A bristly, prickly, coarse biennial, tall and stout, 3 to 6 feet high. The stem, branches, peduncles, midribs of the leaves and the involucre all bear many short prickles. Leaves sessile, lanceolate o...
-Gourd Family - Cucurbitaceae - One-Seeded Bur Cucumber; Star Cucumber - Sicyos Angulatus Linnaeus - Plate 216
An annual, succulent, herbaceous vine, climbing by means of branched tendrils; stem angled, clammy-hairy, often climbing or trailing a distance of 15 to 25 feet. Leaves broad, nearly orbicular, of thi...
-Wild Balsam Apple; Wild Cucumber - Micrampelis Lobata (Michaux) Greene - Plate 217 And Figure XXXV
An herbaceous, annual vine, climbing and twining, several feet long, sometimes confused with the One-seeded Bur Cucumber. Stems angular and grooved, nearly glabrous and not clammy-hairy, but sometimes...
-Bellilower Family - Campanulaceae Harebell; Bluebells Of Scotland Campanula Rotundifolia Linnaeus - Plate 218
A slender, graceful, wiry-stemmed herb, perennial by slender root-stocks, usually smooth, sometimes pubescent. Stems erect or decumbent, often several from the same root, 6 inches to 3 feet high. Basa...
-Creeping or European Bellflower - Campanula rapunculoides Linnaeus - Plate 215b
A perennial herb with slender rootstocks and smooth or pubescent stems, usually not branched, leafy, erect and rather stout, 1 to 3 feet high, the base of the stem decumbent and freely rooting at the ...
-Marsh Or Bedstraw Bellflower - Campanala Aparinoides Pursh - Plate 219a
A perennial herb with very slender, weak stems, reclining or diffusely spreading, rough with short, retrorse bristles, leafy and paniculately branched, 6 inches to 3 feet long. Leaves lanceolate or li...
-Venus's Looking-Glass - Specularia Perfoliata (Linnaeus) A. Decandolle - Plate 219b
Stems weak, decumbent and branched at the base, the ends slender, erect, very leafy, 6 inches to 2 feet tall, angled and hairy on the angles. Leaves rounded, one-fourth to 1 inch broad, clasping the s...
-Lobelia Family - Lobeliaceae - Cardinal Flower; Red Lobelia - Lobelia Cardinalis Linnaeus - Plate 220
A tall, stiffly erect herb, 11/2 to 4 feet high with smooth stems from a perennial root, rarely branched, leafy, bearing an elongated, rather onesided raceme or spike of several or many bright-red flo...
-Great Or Blue Lobelia - Lobelia Syphilitica Linnaeus - Plate 221
A tall, stiffly erect herb, perennial by short offsets at the base; stem I to 3 feet high, stout, leafy, simple, slightly hairy, bearing a long, manyflowered raceme of bright-blue flowers, each flower...
-Indian Or Wild Tobacco; Eyebright - Lobelia Inflata Linnaeus - Plate 222a
An acrid, poisonous herb, 1 to 3 feet high; stem hairy and leafy, panicu-lately branched, from an annual root. Leaves ovate or oblong, bluntly toothed, alternate, the upper sessile and pointed, the lo...
-Kalm's or Brook Lobelia - Lobelia kalmii Linnaeus - Plate 222b
A small, low, slender herb, perennial by short offsets; stems 6 to 20 inches long, smooth, very slender, erect or reclining, leafy and paniculately branched. Lower and basal leaves spatulate, narrowed...
-Chicory Family - Chicoriaceae
A family closely allied to the Sunflower family (Compositae). Stems usually with milky, acrid or bitter juice. Flowers in heads, surrounded by involucral bracts; flowers all alike and perfect. Calyx t...
-Devil's-Paintbrush; Orange Hawkweed - Hieracium Aurantiacum Linnaeus - Plate 223b
A perennial, low-growing, very hairy weed, spreading by means of vigorous and rapidly growing leafy stolons. Leaves basal, spatulate or oblong, blunt at the apex, narrowed at the base, usually entire,...
-King Devil - Hieracium Florentinum Allioni - Plate 223a
Stems slender, smooth or somewhat hispid, 1 to 3 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves all basal, oblong or spatulate, entire, either pointed or blunt at the apex and narrowed at the base into margi...
-Rough Hawkweed - Hieracium Scabrum Michaux - Plate 224
Stems stout and leafy up to the inflorescence, without a basal tuft of leaves at flowering time, 1 to 4 feet high, very hairy with rather reddish hairs and glandular-hairy above. Leaves hairy, oblong ...
-Rattlesnake-Weed; Poor-Robin's-Plantain - Hieracium Venosum Linnaeus - Plate 225
A perennial herb, sending up a smooth, visually solitary and leafless stem, paniculately branched above, I to 3 feet high, with a tuft of basal leaves spreading on the ground. Leaves smooth or sometim...
-Gall-Of-The-Earth; Tall Rattlesnake-Root - Nabalus Trifoliolatus Cassini - Plate 226
Stems smooth, stout and sometimes purplish, with milky juice, leafy and 3 to 9 feet high, from a perennial root. Leaves thin, the lower ones very long petioled, the upper short petioled or sessile, al...
-Sunflower Family - Compositae
The Sunflower family comprises the largest group of flowering plants, including in the flora of the whole world about one-tenth of the known species, or some 12,000 in number. They are chiefly herbs i...
-Beach Clotbur - Xanthium Echinatum Murray - Plate 213b
An annual, coarse, rough herb of seashores and river beaches, with rough, purplish or blotched stems, 1 to 2 feet high. Leaves alternate, tough, coarse, very rough with scattered, short, papillose hai...
-Ironweed - Vernonia Noveboracensis (Linnaeus) Willdenow - Plate 227
Stems erect, stiff, coarse, simple or somewhat branched, 3 to 9 feet high from a perennial root, roughish-pubescent or nearly smooth. Leaves alternate, narrowly oblong to lanceolate, pointed or elonga...
-Joe-Pye Weed; Purple Boneset - Eupatorium Purpureum Linnaeus - Plate 228
Stems tall, smooth, often purplish and glaucous, frequently straight, simple or branched only at the summit, 3 to 10 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves ovate, oval or ovate-lanceolate, petioled. ...
-Hyssop-Leaved Thoroughwort - Eupatorium Hyssopifolium Linnaeus - Plate 229b
Stems roughish-puberulent, rather bushy, 1 to 2 feet high, from a perennial root, bearing opposite, linear leaves and densely corymbosely branched above. Numerous smaller leaves fascicled in the axils...
-Rough Or Vervain Thoroughwort - Eupatorium Verbenaefolium Michaux - Plate 229a
Stems erect, more or less branched at the summit, rough-pubescent, slender, 2 to 7 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, roughpubescent, closely sessile or rarely short petioled, blunt at ...
-Common Thoroughwort; Boneset - Eupatorium Perfoliatum Linnaeus - Plate 230
Stems stout, rigid, hairy, branched above, 2 to 5 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves tough, veiny and wrinkled on both surfaces, opposite and united by their bases (connate-perfoliate), the upper...
-White Snakeroot - Eupatorium Urticaefolium Reichard - Plate 231
Stems erect, smooth, usually much branched, 1 to 4 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, ovate, thin, coarsely and sharply toothed, 3 to 6 inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide, on slender petio...
-Climbing Hempweed Or Boneset - Mikania Scandens (Linnaeus) Willdenow - Plate 232a
Stems smooth and twining or climbing over surrounding vegetation, 5 to 15 feet long, from a perennial root. Leaves opposite, ovate or hastate, deeply cordate at the base with rounded basal lobes, long...
-Maryland Golden Aster - Chrysopsis mariana (Linnaeus) Elliott - Plate 233b
Stems stout, loosely hairy, usually more than one from a stout, perennial root, nearly erect or ascending, 1 to 21/2 feet high and corymbosely branched at the summit. Upper leaves oblong to lanceolate...
-The Goldenrods. Solidago
The Goldenrods comprise a large genus of more than one hundred and twenty-five species, all but a few native of North America. In New York there are found about thirty species of this group. They are ...
-Bushy, Fragrant Or Flat-Topped Goldenrod - Enthawia Graminifolia (Linnaeus) Nuttall - Plate 234
Stems erect, paniculately branched above, smooth or nearly so, 2 to 4 feet high, perennial by running rootstocks. Leaves numerous, linear-lanceolate, sessile, 1 to 5 inches long, one-sixth to one-thir...
-Slender Fragrant Goldenrod; Quobsque Weed - Euthamia Tenuifolia (Pursh) Greene - Plate 232b
Stems slender, smooth or usually somewhat resinous, branched above, 8 to 18 inches high. Leaves numerous, narrowly linear, entire, long pointed at the apex, sessile and narrowed at the base, punctate,...
-Blue-Stemmed Or Wreath Goldenrod - Solidago Caesia Linnaeus - Plate 235a
A smooth, slender plant, the stem often glaucous and usually bluish or purplish, 1 to 3 feet high from a perennial root, and simple or somewhat branched. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, sessil...
-Zigzag Or Broad-Leaved Goldenrod - Solidago Flexicaulis Linnaeus - Plate 236
Stems rarely branched, zigzag, 1 to 3 feet high, smooth and angled. Leaves ovate, long pointed at the apex, thin in texture, narrowed and usually abruptly so at the base into margined petioles, smooth...
-White Or Pale Goldenrod; Silverrod - Solidago Bicolor Linnaeus - Plate 237a
Stems stout, hairy or sometimes nearly smooth, 1 to 4 feet high, sometimes branched. Basal and lower leaves obovate or oblong and blunt, narrowed into long, margined petioles, crenulate-toothed, more ...
-Downy Goldenrod - Solidago Puberula Nuttall - Plate 237b
Stems rather slender, 11/2 to 3 feet high, rarely branched, minutely puberulent or nearly smooth. Basal leaves and often the lowest leaves of the stem spatulate, blunt or pointed, usually sharply toot...
-Seaside Goldenrod - Solidago Sentpervirens Linnaeus - Plate 235b
Stem stout and leafy, rarely branched, 2 to 8 feet high, smooth or slightly puberulent above. Leaves entire, thick, fleshy with two to five pairs of lateral veins, the lower or basal leaves oblong, sp...
-Canada Or Rock Goldenrod - Solidago Canadensis Linnaeus - Plate 238
Stems slender, smooth or finely hairy above, 1 to 5 feet high, usually several or many plants together and spreading by underground rootstocks. Leaves thin, triple-nerved, linear-lanceolate, 2 to 5 in...
-Houghton's Goldenrod - Solidago Houghtonii Torrey & Gray - Plate 239a
Stems slender, smooth below, sometimes slightly hairy above, 8 to 24 inches high. Leaves linear, the basal and lower ones petioled, 4 to 5 inches long, one-sixth to one-third of an inch wide, three-ne...
-The Asters
Aster The Wild Asters comprise a genus of over two hundred and fifty species, of which nearly fifty species occur in New York State. They are mostly perennial, branching herbs with alternate, simple l...
-Large-Leaved Aster - Aster Macrophyllus Linnaeus - Plate 240
Stems rather stout, rough, reddish, angled, 1 to 3 feet high from a thick, long, perennial rootstock. Basal leaves forming large patches, three to four to each stem, broad, cordate, with a large, irre...
-Red-Stalked Or Purple-Stemmed Aster - Aster Puniceus Linnaeus - Plate 241
Stem rather stout, more or less branched above, hispid with stiff hairs or nearly smooth, reddish, 2 to 8 feet high. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, long pointed, sessile and clasping the stem...
-Late Purple Aster - Aster Patens Aiton - Plate 242a
Stems rather stiff, slender, somewhat rough, 1 to 3 feet high, with several spreading branches toward the summit. Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, rough or pubescent, thick and somewhat rigid...
-Smooth Aster - Aster Laevis Linnaeus - Plate 243
Stems rather stout, or slender and stiff, smooth and usually glaucous, branched above or simple, 2 to 4 feet high, from a thick, perennial root. Leaves thick, smooth, slightly rough on the entire or s...
-Seaside Or Low Showy Aster - Aster Spectabilis Aiton - Plate 244
Stems erect or ascending, stiff, simple or branched above, usually several or many from a single mat of stout, perennial roots; stems slightly rough below and more or less glandular above, 1 to 2 feet...
-New England Aster - Aster Novae-Angliae Linnaeus - Plate 245
Stems stout, very leafy and hairy, corymbosely branched above, 2 to 8 feet high, from a stout, perennial root. Leaves lanceolate, entire, rather thin, pointed at the apex, hairy, 2 to 6 inches long, o...
-Starved Or Calico Aster - Aster Lateriflorus (Linnaeus) Britton - Plate 246b
Stems slender, divergently branched, nearly smooth or puberulent, chiefly erect, 1 to 5 feet high. Basal leaves ovate, slender-petioled; stem leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, pointed, 2...
-Mountain Or Whorled Aster - Aster Acuminatus Michaux - Plate 247
Stems zigzag, corymbosely branched above, smooth or minutely pubescent, usually leafless below, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves thin, broadly oblong, sharp pointed at the apex, narrowed to a somewhat cuneate...
-Upland White Aster - Aster Ptarmicoides (Nees) Torrey & Gray ( Unamia Alba (Nuttall) Rydberg) - Plate 246a
Stems slender, stiff, usually rough above, frequently several from a single perennial root, corymbosely branched toward the summit, 1 to 2 feet high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, one to three-nerved, ent...
-Tall Flat-Top White Aster - Doellingeria Umbellata (Miller) Nees Von Esenbeck - Plate 248
Stems rigid, erect, smooth or somewhat pubescent above, striate, corymbosely branched at the top, 1 to 8 feet high from a perennial root. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, ascending, smooth abov...
-Stiff Or Savory-Leaved Aster - Ionactis Linariifolius (Linnaeus) Greene - Plate 242b
Stems very leafy, tufted or often several from a perennial root, puberulent or roughish, 6 to 24 inches high. Leaves linear or spatulate, spreading, one-nerved, stiff, entire, rough and usually ciliol...
-White-Topped Aster - Sericocarpus Asteroides (Linnaeus) Britton, Sterns & Poggenberg - Plate 233a
Stems rather stiff, erect or ascending, pubescent or nearly smooth, slightly angled, 1 to 2 feet high, from a perennial root. Leaves alternate, thin, smoothish or somewhat pubescent, ciliate, faintly ...
-Philadelphia Fleabane; Skevish; Daisy Fleabane - Erigeron Philadelphicus Linnaeus - Plate 239b
A slender-stemmed herb 1 to 3 feet high, softly pubescent, perennial by stolons and offsets. Stem and midrib on the under surfaces of the leaves densely downy-pubescent. Basal and lower stem leaves sp...
-Spicy Or Salt-Marsh Fleabane - Pluchea Camphorata (Linnaeus) Decandolle - Plate 249b
An annual, branching herb with nearly smooth, or sometimes puberu-lent, and somewhat grooved, stout stems, 2 to 3 feet high. Leaves alternate, ovate, serrate or denticulate, 3 to 8 inches long, 1 to 3...
-Pearly Everlasting; Moonshine - Anaphalis Margaritacea (Linnaeus) Bentham & Hooker - Plate 211a
A white-tomentose or woolly perennial herb, the erect leafy stem corym-bosely branched at the summit, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves alternate, entire, linear-lanceolate, sessile, revolute on the margins, g...
-Elecampane; Horseheal - Inula Helenium Linnaeus - Plate 250
A large, woolly, perennial herb, with a stout, thick mucilaginous root. Stems stout, usually unbranched, 2 to 6 feet high and densely woolly-pubescent. Leaves alternate, rough-hairy above, densely woo...
-Cup Plant; Indian Cup - Silphium Perfoliatum Linnaeus - Plate 251
A tall, perennial herb, with resinous juice. Stem usually smooth, square, branched above, 4 to 8 feet high. Leaves opposite, ovate or deltoid-ovate, the upper ones united around the stem, the lower le...
-Oxeye; False Sunflower. Heliopsis helianthoides (Linnaeus) Sweet. Plate 252
Heliopsis, the False Sunflower, differs from the true Sunflowers (Helianthus) chiefly in having both the ray and disk flowers fertile, that is, capable of producing seed. In the true Sunflowers, the r...
-Thin-Leaved Coneflower - Rudbeckia Triloba Linnaeus - Plate 253
Similar in appearance to the Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta), but more branched and with smaller heads of flowers. It is rather tall, 2 to 5 feet high with rough and pubescent stems but scarcely ha...
-Black-Eyed Susan; Yellow Daisy - Rudbeckia Hirta Linnaeus - Plate 254
A coarse, native biennial, or sometimes annual, with rough, hairy stems and foliage, the stems rather bristly-hairy, 1 to 3 feet high. Leaves thick, sparingly toothed or entire, oblong to lanceolate, ...
-Tall Or Green-Headed Coneflower - Rudbeckia Laciniata Linnaeus - Plate 255
Stems tall, leafy and much branched, sometimes 10 or 12 feet tall, from a perennial root. Leaves thin in texture, minutely hairy above and on the margins, both basal and upper leaves pinnately divided...
-Narrow-Leaved Or Swamp Sunflower - Helianthus Angustifolius Linnaeus - Plate 249a
Easily distinguished from the other Sunflowers by its narrow, linear leaves and yellow heads with purplish disks. Perennial by slender root-stocks; stem rough, 2 to 7 feet high; slender and branched a...
-Tall, Giant Or "Wild Sunflower - Helianthus Giganteus Linnaeus - Plate 256
Stems tall and rather stiff, hairy and rough to the touch, 3 to 12 feet high, often purplish, perennial by fleshy roots and creeping rootstocks. Leaves sessile or short petioled, firm, lanceolate, ver...
-Rough Or Woodland Sunflower - Helianthus Divaricatus Linnaeus - Plate 257
A slender perennial with erect stems, 2 to 7 feet high from perennial roots and rootstocks; smooth nearly to the summit. Leaves rough on the upper surface, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate in shape, tap...
-Hairy Wild Sunflower - Helianthus Mollis Lamarck - Plate 258
A tall, perennial plant, with densely soft-hairy stem and downy-pubescent leaves. Stem stout, usually but sparingly branched. Leaves ovate with a heart-shaped base closely clasping the stem, softly pu...
-Pale-Leaved Wood Sunflower - Helianthus Strumosus Linnaeus - Plate 259
Perennial by branched and sometimes tuberous-thickened rootstock; stems smooth, sometimes glaucous below and branched above, usually somewhat pubescent, 3 to 7 feet high. Leaves short petiolcd, ovate ...
-Lance-Leaved Tickseed - Coreopsis Lanceolata Linnaeus - Plate 260a
An erect, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, stems slender, striate, smooth or more or less pubescent, especially below. Leaves smooth or somewhat hairy, opposite; the basal and lower stem leaves spatu...
-Small Rose Or Pink Tickseed - Coreopsis Rosea Nuttall - Plate 261b
Stems slender, smooth, wiry, erect or at least the tips ascending, 6 to 24 inches high, perennial by slender, creeping rootstocks, usually much branched and smooth. Leaves opposite, linear, entire, 1 ...
-Small Or Nodding Bur Marigold - Bidens Cernua Linnaeus - Plate 262
An annual, with erect or partially prostrate stems, smooth or hispid and usually much branched, from a few inches to 3 feet high. Leaves sessile, opposite, usually somewhat united around the stem. Lan...
-Sneezeweed; False Or Swamp Sunflower - Helenium Autumnale Linnaeus - Plate 261a
Stems stout and branching, 2 to 6 feet high, aromatic and resinous, from a perennial root. Leaves firm, oblong-lanceolate, narrowed to a sessile base and pointed at the apex, usually toothed, 2 to 5 i...
-Yarrow; Milfoil - Achillea Millefolium Linnaeus - Plate 260b
A very common weed, found everywhere; the feathery, finely dissected leaves, when the plant is small and not in flower, often mistaken by those not acquainted with it for fern leaves. It is perennial ...
-Golden Ragwort; Swamp Squawweed - Senecio Aureus Linnaeus - Plate 263
Stems slender, smooth, erect, 6 to 28 inches high, solitary or tufted from a perennial, strong-scented root. Basal leaves ovate, orbicular or oblong-ovate, heart-shaped at the base and long petioled, ...
-Swamp Thistle - Cirsium Muticum Michaux - Plate 264
An erect, biennial, prickly herb, with spiny leaves and smooth stem, 3 to 8 feet high, slender, leafy, striate and branching above. When young the stem is woolly or hairy, becoming smooth when older. ...
-List Of Illustrations Of Wild Flowers Arranged According To Families
Part 1 Typhaceae Broad-leaved Cat-tail (Typlia latijolia). Figure I, page 36 Alismaceae Broad-leaved Arrowhead {Sagittaria latijolia). Plate 1 Cyperaceae Sheathed Cotton Grass (Eriophorum callith...
-List Of Illustrations Of Wild Flowers Arranged According To Families. Part 2
Large Yellow Pond Lily; Spatter-dock (Nymphaea advena). Plate 56 Sweet-scented White Water Lily (Castalia odorata). Plate 57 Tuberous White Water Lily (Castalia tuberosa). Plate 58 Ranunculaceae M...
-List Of Illustrations Of Wild Flowers Arranged According To Families. Part 3
Balsaminaceae Spotted Touch-me-not or Jewelweed (Impatiens biflora). Plate 122a Pale Touch-me-not or Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida). Plate 122b Polygalaceae Orange Milkwort (Polygala lutea). Plate ...
-List Of Illustrations Of Wild Flowers Arranged According To Families. Part 4
Four-leaved Milkweed (Asclepias quadrifolia). Plate 174 Common Milkweed; Silkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Plate 175 Convolvulaceae Hedge or Great Bindweed (Convolvulus sepium). Plate 176 Upright or L...









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