191. The details of the construction of the exterior features of a building require, on account of their exposed situations, especial consideration in order to insure the fulfilment of the purposes required of them.

Veranda construction must provide all the requirements of an out-door sitting room in fair weather, and at the same time insure the side of the house on which it is built against the invasion of water and dampness during a heavy rain storm, and effect the rapid drying of the floor and timbers after such a storm is over.

192. Fig. 76 is a perspective view of the details of veranda construction shown in drawing plate entitled, Constructive Details, Architectural Drawing. The floor d pitches at the rate of \ inch in a foot from the house line to the front edge at e in order to drain the water off as soon as it falls. For the same reason the boards of the floor are laid across the veranda, as shown, as the water would otherwise lodge in the joints and soon rot out the material.

In order to run the floor boards in this direction, it is necessary to provide means of framing the floorbeams lengthwise of the structure. Therefore, under each veranda post is built a brick or stone pier a, on which is laid the 4" X 6" sill f extending full length of the veranda, and from this pier a girder b extends to the foundation wall of the house, where a stone templet g is built in to receive it; or, where the veranda is narrow, the girder simply rests on the brickwork without any templet. The veranda floor joists are then framed into the girder, as shown at h, and securely spiked in place. In frame buildings the girders usually rest on a ledger board, well spiked to the sheathing.

Verandas 318

Fig. 76.

In order to secure the necessary pitch of 1/4 inch to a foot for the veranda floor, the girder b may be laid at the necessary inclination; or, its top may be planed, or sawed, down so that it has the proper pitch and the bottom remain level. In either case, the beams are framed so that their tops are flush with the top of the girder, and the flooring is laid directly upon them.

193. Veranda flooring should be at least 1 1/4 inches in thickness, tongued and grooved and laid in white lead; that is, the joint between two boards should be thoroughly filled with a pasty composition of white lead dissolved in raw linseed oil. This is accomplished by coating the edges of the boards with the mixture and driving them tightly together as they are laid. A good material for veranda floors is clear, dry white pine, heart stock, and free from all imperfections.

194. Veranda posts, whether square, as at k, or turned in a lathe, should be selected of good, sound, dry timber, which is the heart wood of the tree. After being sized to the required dimensions, they are carefully sawed squarely across the ends to an even length, the pores of the lower end of the wood are then filled with white lead, and the post is stood on the finished floor of the veranda. A girder / connects the upper ends of these posts and serves to support the ceiling beams and rafters i and j. On the ceiling beams i the plate o is spiked, and the foot of the rafters j is notched out to fit over it, as shown.

The inside ends of the beams and rafters are notched over a ledger board in the same manner as second-story floor-beams, where the building is of frame, and in brick or stone walls, they are built in and anchored, as described in Art. 108.

195. The roof, which pitches at the rate of 4 inches in a foot, will be boarded over with matched roofing boards and then covered with tin, as the inclination is too flat for shingles or slate. The gutter is formed by cutting out about one-half the depth of the projecting portion of the ceiling beams, as shown at t, and sawing the lower end of the rafters to stand plumb over the girder /. The continuation of the roof pitch below the gutter is then maintained by spiking to each ceiling beam a triangular piece s and boarding it over to form the roof slope and gutter v.

The ceiling of the veranda may be formed with narrow strips of pine, or hardwood w, laid on and blind nailed securely to each of the ceiling beams i. A better appearance is presented when the ceiling boards are placed at right angles with the building, in which case blocking or furring strips would be run at right angles with the ceiling beams. Sometimes the veranda roof is left open on the under side, exposing the timber construction. When this is the case, no ceiling beams are used, but the rafters are planed and dressed on their under sides, and the roofing boards are of selected, narrow stock, planed and matched, and laid with their finished sides downwards.

196. Chamfering is sometimes resorted to as a means of relieving exposed timbers of the sharp angle or corner where their finished faces meet. It consists of cutting off the corners of a girder, ceiling beam, veranda post, or other exposed timber, for a part of its length, and stopping the chamfer against an oblique cut made at an angle of about 45°, as shown at a b in Fig. 77, where b c is one of the chamfered corners of a square post.

197. Chamfered corners are very conspicuous in Swiss cottage architecture, where the entire framework of the building is more or less exposed and ornamented. The depth or breadth of a chamfered edge is entirely a matter of taste. Of course it should never be so deep as to impair the strength of the timber, while, on the other hand, it should be prominent enough to be clearly seen from any point where the timber so treated is conspicuous. This is especially the case with girders and floorbeams, which, being above the eye, require a somewhat heavier chamfer than posts and railing, which are lower down and more closely observed.

Verandas 319

Fig. 77