In some localities, dwellings and light mercantile or public buildings are built with a frame of studs and boarding, veneered on the outside with four inches of brick. In this construction, the strength of the building lies in the frame, and the superintendent should see that this is built and braced in the best manner, plumb and straight and boarded diagonally, all of well-seasoned stock. Over the boarding, tarred felting should be placed, and an inch away from this, the four-inch brick wall, tied at short intervals to the wooden wall, as shown in Fig. 119. A metal tie such as at A may be used or the patented tie B, which is better.

As moisture will collect in the air space behind the veneer, the ties will be better if given a drip, as for hollow walls, and a small drain may be laid at the top of the foundation wall connected with the cellar by pipes for drip and ventilation. This combination of masonry and woodwork is not to be recommended in general, but should only be used matter of economy.

The use of wood in the structure of brick walls, while sometimes necessary, should be avoided where possible. Wooden lintels were formerly used to considerable extent, but are objectionable for many reasons. Besides being combustible, it is almost impossible to obtain beams, of the large size which their purpose requires, which are dry, and the shrinkage is pretty sure to make a crack at some time. (Fig. 120.) Wooden plates inserted in the wall, for a level bearing for floor timbers, should be avoided, as their shrinkage will leave the bricks above unsupported. Wooden lintels may be used under arches to form a square opening, but the arch should always spring from the solid wall beyond the lintel to relieve it from the load above. (Fig. 121.) Wooden strips are sometimes built into the walls for a nailing for furring and finish, but, if used, should be thin enough to lay in the joint; and wooden bricks, often used for nailings, by their shrinkage will become loose besides weakening the walls.

Fig. 119. Brick Veneer.

Fig. 119. Brick Veneer.

A better way is to use a strong mortar into which the nails of the furring strips may be driven or porous terra cotta blocks may be set for nailings in special work.

Cleaning Down

When a piece of brickwork is completed, the exterior will need to be cleaned of mortar stains and discolorations. This is done by washing down the wall with a dilute solution of muriatic acid, using a scrubbing brush, followed by washing with clear water to remove all trace of the acid. The wall is then often given a coat of linseed oil cut with turpentine. At this time also, all bad joints are pointed up, the spaces under window sills are filled up, the joints of stonework pointed, and the wall left whole and clean.