This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
All joists are to be set 1 foot 4 inches on centers with a bearing on all supporting walls of 4 inches. When in brick walls, the ends are to be beveled so that the upper edge is just on a line with the inside face of brick wall.
All trimmers are to be doubled, and all headers over 10 feet long are to be tripled. Where joists are framed together, no cutting is to be done; but wrought-iron hangers or stirrups with a cross-section of all vertical parts equal to 1 square inch of metal, are to be used.
Every third joist in the brick wall is to be anchored thereto by a strap anchor containing 1/2 square inch of metal, extending 2 feet onto the Tower edge of joist and within 4 inches of the outside face of wall, with end turned up 2 inches, to be spiked to the joist with five 30d nails to each anchor. Where joists meet over partition heads, they are to be spiked thereto with four 20d spikes at each bearing, and, when practicable, to the joist of the opposite side. All joists are to be cross-bridged every 8 feet of clear span, with 2 by 2-inch stuff, with two 12d nails in each end.
Studs are to be 1 foot 4 inches on centers, both studs and heads doubled beside and over all openings; and all openings over 4 feet wide are to be trussed above. Each stud is to be secured with four 12d nails at each end, and to have one line of 2 by 2-inch single bridging in the height of each story, this bridging to be so set in the center of the stud that it will be an inch back from both faces.
The lining floors will have two 8d nails in each board over each bearing, one in the tongue and one about 1 inch from the groove edge. All lining will be so laid as to be perfectly tight, and may be laid before plastering.
All sash will be of pine, 1 3/4 inches thick. When only single sash are shown, they are to be hinged with three 3-inch wrought-iron butts at the top, with two hooks to each sash to secure them when either closed or open. All other sash are to be double-hung with braided cotton cord and iron weights, the pockets of the window-frames to be as long as practicable.
All finished floors will have one 8d nail over each joist; and, after laying, they are to be scraped or planed to an even surface. These floors are to be laid after all other finish is in, and are to be cut with great care against the base.
All finish lumber is to be put up in such a manner that the nails or screws securing it will be invisible. This is to be done by working through the back or in quirks or concealed places, but no splintering to hide the heads of nails will be required.
The hardwood doors will be veneered on soft white pine cores made of strips not over 7/8 inch thick. Before the veneering is put on, the Architect is to be advised where the cores may be inspected; and, if the gluing or seasoning is defective, or hard knots are discovered, the cores will be rejected. The panels are to be left free to shrink.
All doors below third floor are to be 1 3/4 inches thick; all on third floor and above, 1 3/8 inches thick.
The mantels are to be built up complete, all parts glued together and nailed or screwed in concealed places, and brought to the building ready to set in place.