This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
171. The celling of the portico rests upon a small cornice and is divided into panels, which correspond to the columns and the spaces between the columns. In order to draw the caissons of the cupola, it will be necessary to repeat Plate R and go back to this study for the details of the lantern.
172. In Plate XXXII is found a pavilion in the Mutular Doric Order. It is to be drawn with the border line of the same size as in the other plates, but, by omitting the plan here shown, it will be possible to increase the height of the building considerably and still bring it within the outlines of the drawing.
173. This small building is raised ten steps above the level of a garden, and is composed of a portico "in antis," giving access to the room beyond. The plan forms a square from center to center of the corner pilasters. This dimension corresponds to nine divisions, center to center, of the triglyphs in the entablature.
174. The four pilasters of the lateral facade form three regular bays of three spacings of the triglyphs. The intercolumniation in the center of the principal facade or portico is three entablatures, five times the distance from the center of one triglyph to the center of another, which is sixty parts, and the space between the antae and the columns is one entablature and twenty parts, or twice the distance between the triglyphs, center to center. The depth of the portico corresponds to one bay of the pilasters of the lateral Facade, and the divisions of the pilasters of the rear facade cor-respond to the columns of the portico. In the middle of this rear facade is found a window which lights the interior; this window is twice its width in height and is placed above a wainscot of the height (1 En) shown in the section.
175. The entrance door is decorated with a frame similar to that in Plate XXV, and has an entablature with a pediment whose details are given on this plate at C. The entablature which surrounds the ceiling of the portico and of the hall is also the same as was used in Plate XXV.
"Rusticated" applies to masonry work in which the joints are strongly emphasized. The dado has a plinth base of a height corresponding to the height of the column base, and a cap fourteen parts high. The bead and conge of the bases continue around and above this plinth; the rusticated stones are alternately twenty-six and sixty-eight parts wide with sinkages of two parts.
177. The roof is pyramidal in form and is crowned by a pine-apple, of which the detail is given at D in this plate, XXXII, and the balustrade shown at the left-hand side of the facade would be the rail of a terrace on the edge of which this pavilion is located. This terrace, although the pavilion does not communicate with it, would be accessible by flights of steps placed laterally. For this the student may exercise his own imagination, and draw out separately at a smaller scale a plan giving his idea of the general arrangement.
178. The facade of a Doric temple is to be drawn by the student from the plan shown in Fig. 30. The measurements necessary for the placing of the columns are here given, and further than this he is to supply their proper proportions and heights, as well as the necessary details, from the various drawings illustrating this order, which he has already studied. The four-columned portico on the front is crowned with a pediment, the proportions of which must be ascertained after the principle shown in Plates XXXII or XXXIII. This plate is to be drawn out with the border lines 20"X 28" in size.
179. The proportions and general scheme for laying out this problem will be found in the illustration of the Ionic Portico, Plate XXXIII. The various details both for the exterior entablature and for the entablature inside the temple, as well as the architraves for the entrance door, have already been given. The main facade or front elevation should be drawn to the center line which passes through the apex of the pediment and through the axis of the doorway. The section on this plate may be omitted, in which particular there will be a difference between this problem and the problem of the Ionic Order. In the plan it will be noticed that half has been shown with a pedestal, while the other half rests directly on a platform or "stylobate." It would be better to draw this order with a pedestal and to indicate by a dotted line the contour of the steps leading from the stylobate to the ground. The method of constructing the slope of the pediment has already been explained, and has also been shown on Plate XXXIII. This is essentially the same problem as that given under the Ionic Order, but the details and the proportions, it will be seen, are distinctly different.
180. The Ionic Temple, with portico, shown in Plate XXXIII is to be drawn at the same size as the last plate, 20" X 28". These two drawings when finished should resemble each other, save that in the preceding exercise the full facade of the temple is shown, while in this plate of the Ionic Order a half facade and section are to be combined as illustrated.
181. The exterior face of the wall is formed with rusticated joints, that is to say. the joints of the stones form triangular recesses or grooves as shown at C, Plate XXIX. This decorative scheme is at the same time a logical construction because, the angles of the stones being obtuse, the edges are less liable to be broken off.
182. This exercise is one of superposition and, as the same principle may be applied throughout the use of the other orders, it is believed that one drawing devoted to this subject will be amply sufficient. The student is required to reproduce the drawing shown in Fig. 23, at the size of 13"X l8" and to complete in his drawing all the details of the mouldings, windows, doorways, etc., where the same are only blocked in upon this figure. The considerations in regard to superposition, stated in the text in paragraphs 116 to 132, must be carefully observed.
183. The subject of this study, Plate X, is the central part of the facade of an edifice; assume it is to be a library or public building of a similar character. The Corinthian Order is raised on a series of pedestals. The interior level of the edifice is raised above the exterior ground level and is reached by a staircase which will prove to be an interesting part of this study. This staircase is in two parts, each part composed of two flights with an intermediate landing. The first flight has twelve risers up to the landing; the second has eight risers up to the top of a wide landing which is placed before the entrance and on the axis of the edifice. A balustrade with two pedestals, on which might be placed statues or candelabras, surmounts the supporting wall of the landing. This supporting wall is finished on each side by a pillar on which is placed a vase, and is decorated with rusticated joints. The central part, corresponding to the balustrade, forms a projection; a niche decorated with a fountain and semi-circular basin would be practicable below this space. The entrance door of the edifice is in the form of an arch, covered with a pediment of the Ionic Order. The Corinthian columns forming the corners of the projection are coupled, that is to say, the space which separates them is less than the minimum of the regular intercolumniation.
184. The student is required to design, arrange and draw upon a plate, the size of 20" X 28", some such problem as is shown in Plate XXXIV, termed an Entrance or Monumental Approach. He may use any orders that he may choose for this problem, but should remember to maintain a proper relation between them in scale and size. He must not follow exactly this arrangement but must introduce such a variety in the plan as will give him a problem in elevation different from the one here solved.