The ordinary method of enforcement of covenants by a vendor in restraint of trade so far as they are legal is by injunction.41

37 Langdell, Survey Eq. Jur. 68.

38 In Fothergill v. Rowland, L. R. 17 Eq. 132, an injunction restraining the sale of coal to others than the plaintiff to whom the defendant had promised all he should mine, was refused because loss of coal could be compensated by damages. See also Bartholomse Ac. Co. v. ModJBelewski, 269 111. 639, 109 N. E. 1068.

39Doherty v, Allman, 3 App. Cas. 709; DeMattos v. Gibson, 4 De G. &

J. 276; Brown v. Kling, 101 Cal. 295, 35 Pac. 995; Andrews v. Kinsbury, 212 Dl. 97, 72 N. E. 11; Walker v. Mo-Nulty, 19 N. Y. Misc. 701, 45 N. Y. S. 42; Emrick v. Groome, 4 Fa. Dist. 511.

40 Bice v. D'Arville, 162 Mass. 559, 39 N. E. 180. As to the practice of enforcing affirmative obligations by enjoining their non-performance, see eupro, Sec. 1423, ad fin.

41A few of many instances of the enforcement of such promises are

So where as part of a contract of employment or of partnership the employee or partner makes a valid agreement not to engage in a competing business during the term of his employment or subsequently, an injunction is allowed. The right is not based on the unique or special character of the service promised but upon the proposition that the defendant's qualifications for injuring the plaintiff by competition with him are " special, unique and extraordinary." 42 The limitations on the validity of such agreements are elsewhere considered.43 Analogous instances of enforceable negative promises are stipulations in a lease or other conveyance not to use land in a certain way,44 or promises not to manufacture or sell a patented article in violation of an agreement between the parties.45 Where the plaintiff has been given an exclusive agency or right by the defendant, dealings with third persons in violation thereof may be enjoined.46

Dubowski v. Goldstein, [1896] 1 Q.

B. 478; Archer v. Marsh, 6 A. & E. 959; Tallis v. Tallis, 1 E. & B. 391; Davis v. Booth, 121 Fed. 31, 65

C. C. A. 269; Hursen v. Gavin, 162 I11. 377, 44 N. E. 735; Ryan v. Hamilton, 205 111. 191, 68 N. E. 781 [reversing 103 111 App. 212]; Beatty v. Coble, 142 Ind. 329, 41 N. E. 590; Roweo. Toon (la.), 169 N. W. 38; Ropes v. Upton, 125 Mass. 258; Angier v. Webber, 14 Allen, 211, 92 Amer. Dec. 748; Butterick Publishing Co. v. Fisher, 203 Mass. 122, 89 N. E. 189, 133 Am. St. Rep. 283; (cf. Standard Fashion Co. v. Magrane-Hooston Co., 251 Fed. 559, 163 C. C. A. 553, 259 Fed. 793 [C. C. A.J); Up River Ice Co. v. Denier, 114 Mich. 296, 72 N. W. 157, 68 Am. St. Rep. 480; Althen v. Vreeland (N. J.), 36 Atl. 479; Diamond Match Co. v. Roeber, 106 N. Y. 473, 13 N. E. 419, 60 Am. Rep. 464; Tode v Gross, 127 N. Y. 480, 28 N. E. 469, 13 L. R. A. 652, 24 Am. St. Rep. 475; Wood v.. Whitehead Bros. Co., 165 N. Y. 545, 59 N. E. 357; Selzman v. Siegehnan, 102 N. Y. App. D. 406, 92 N. Y. 8. 844; Comerma Co. v Comerma, 182 N. Y. App. D. 576, 169 N. Y. S. 884; Cowan v. Fair-brother, 118 N. C. 406, 24 8. E. 212, 32 L. R. A. 829, 54 Am. St. Rep. 733;

Hulen v. Earel, 13 Okla. 246, 73 Pac. 927; Stofflet v. Stofflet, 160 Pa. St. 529, 28 Atl. 857; Wilkinson v. Colley, 164 Pa. St. 35, 30 Atl. 286, 26 L. R. A. 114; Richards v. Shipley, 257 Pa. 134, 101 Atl. 456; Swanson v. Sims, (Utah, 1917), 170 Pac. 774.

42 McCall Co. v. Wright, 133 N. Y. App. D. 62, 117 N. Y. S. 775, 198 N. Y. 143, 91 N. E. 516, 31 L. R. A. (N. S.) 249. See also Robinson v. Heuer, 67 L. J. Ch. 644; Rousfllon v. Rousillon, 14 Ch. D. 351; Carter v. Ailing, 43 Fed. 208; Kinney v. Scarborough Co., 138 Ga. 77, 74 S. E. 772, 40 L. R. A. (N. &) 473; Old Rose Distilling Co. v. Feuer, 202 11I. App. 210; Marvel v. Jonah, 83 N. J. Eq. 205, 90 Atl. 1004; Magnolia Metal Co. v. Price, 65 N. Y. App. D. 276, 72 N. Y. S. 792; Mutual Milk & Cream Co. v. Heldt, 120 N. Y. App. D. 795, 105 N. Y. S. 661; Cf. Rosenstein v. Zents, 118 Md. 564, 85 Atl. 675, 44 L. R. A. (N. S.) 63; Gilbert v. Wilmer, 102 N. Y. Misc. 388, 168 N. Y. S. 1043.

43 Infra, Sec.Sec. 1633 et seq.

44 DeWilton v. Saxon, 6 Ves: 106; Rankin v. Husldsson, 4 Sim. 13; Bramwell v. Lacy, 10 Ch. Div. 691; Hudson v. Cripps, [1896] 1 Ch. 265; Pope v. Bell, 35 N. J. Eq. 1.