It is a wide range between buckles, typewriter bars and umbrella rods to the local annealing of armour plates on warships, but the electric welder covers that range. It is no wider, however, than that from fine wires of a diameter of one-fiftieth of an inch up to heavy steel wire for the armour of submarine cables, and again up to street railway rail joints.

In recent years, elaborate machinery, for the actual production on a large scale of steel tubing from flat stock or skelp by the progressive welding of a longitudinal seam, has been put into operation. The long strip, or skelp, is rolled up so that its edges meet. In this condition it enters between the welding rolls, which pass the heating current locally across the edges to weld them, and the operation is progressive from one end of the pipe to the other as it is fed into the machine. The result is a pipe of which the walls are of even thickness and the diameter uniform. This pipe can be afterward drawn, if needed, to the exact size desired. Very thin pipe can be made of steel, the longitudinal seam or weld in which is a delicate bead along the length, - a beautiful product. for the extreme localisation of the heat has allowed preservation of surface and finish of the metal outside the joint. Taper tubes, such as are used for bicycle front forks and the like, are easily made.



Pratt and Whitney Co.



A similar machine for large work has lately been constructed, and by its use large diameter tubes or shells, up to 16 inches in diameter, are produced from sheet steel or iron. The accompanying illustration shows such a machine ready for operation. The welding transformer is at the top of the machine, and the secondary circuit has for its terminals two copper rolls inclined to each other on two nearly horizontal shafts adjustable in position over the work. Below are the guide rolls, one on each side on vertical shafts, and between these the shell to be welded passes with its meeting edges uppermost and in contact with the copper contact rolls. As the metal shell passes along under these rolls the joint is progressively heated by the welding current crossing it, and the weld is finished by the side pressure of the guiding rolls. The process, as well as the resulting welded product, is unique.

For a considerable time past, welding machines have been applied to the production of bands or tires from stock of varying width, thickness, and sectional form. More recently the practice of welding plain bands or cylindrical rings, and afterwards rolling them with the form of section desired, has been largely adopted; such as, for example, in the production of automobile wheel rims, bands for roving cans, stove rings, etc.

Very different from this is the formation of crankshafts, now demanded in great numbers for engines of automobiles. These are made from drop forgings and round shaft stock by uniting the pieces, as in the annexed sketch, and afterwards lightly machining and finishing the approximately correct shaft, as produced by welding.

Besides the banding of wire or strip of such comparatively frail containing vessels as barrels or pails, the electric weld finds application in the forming and capping of metal vessels for withstanding high pressures, such as soda-water cylinders, carbonic acid reservoirs, and steel bottles for nitrous oxide gas.

One of the most interesting of the more recent applications is hat of welding hollow steel handles on cutlery, such as table knives and forks. The operation is remarkable for the celerity and neatness of the work, the articles being finished by silver-plating and polishing, as usual. The hollow handle is drawn from thin steel, and united to the knife blade or to the fork, as the case may be, in a special welding machine, there being no brazing or other operation of joint-forming required. There is, indeed, no limit to the delicacy of the work which may be undertaken, provided only the welding apparatus is equally refined.

Electric Welding Development Continued 100554ELECTRIC RAIL WELDING ON STREET RAILWAYS.



In the simpler types of electric welders, especially where the machine is designed to do a variety of work, perhaps of different forms or sizes of pieces, or both, the adjustments are usually manual; that is to say, the operations of clamping the pieces and applying the electric current 'and mechanical pressure are each controlled by the operator. In other cases, such as in the welding of copper or aluminium wire, the machine is, at least in part, automatic. The pressure is automatically applied and the welding current is cut off automatically upon the completion of the joint; the placing of the pieces in the clamps and the switching on of the current is. in this case, manually per-formed.

In other, more completely automatic, types, particularly adapted for rapid repetition of the same operation on identical pieces, the machine runs continuously, and its sequence of actions is definitely determined by the construction. In such cases a source of power, as by a belt, drives the machine, the movement so imparted having the effect of clamping the pieces as they are fed to the machine, putting on the current, applying the pressure, cutting off the current and releasing the pieces.

The mechanism which has been developed for these purposes displays, in many instances, much ingenuity. In these machines the duty of the attendant is limited to the mere placing of the pieces between the clamping jaws, just before they are clamped, and the work is characterised by rapidity and by uniformity of the results.

More completely automatic still are machines for the production of wire fencing and for the consecutive welding of the links of chains. In these the operation, once started, goes on uninterruptedly so long as the work holds out, or until the stock undergoing operation is exhausted. In the fence machines, of which fifteen are now in existence, galvanised iron wires are fed from reels parallel to one another, at distances apart depending on the mesh desired. These may correspond to the warp in weaving. Transversely to these, and at intervals corresponding to the mesh selected, are fed wires, cut from a reel, which transverse wires are the verticals in the finished fence itself and correspond to the weft in weaving. A series of small welders are automatically brought into operation to weld each transverse wire to the longitudinals where the two cross. This done, the web so formed moves forward, the operation repeats itself, and so on continuously. The welding is, in this case, practically instantaneous, and all of the movements of the machine are entirely automatic.

In this way it is possible for ft single machine to turn out many thousands of feet of fencing per day with a width of mesh from 2 or 3 inches up. Less wire is used than where the joints are made by twists or loops, and the stability or fixedness of position of such joints as are made is much more assured.