But they did not meet with that patronage that was expected.
The next locomotionist who received the great seal, was Mr. Nathan Gough, of Salford, some of whose arrangements possess originality, and are not destitute of merit. The form of the vehicle for the reception of the passengers is similar to that of an ordinary stage coach, having a great boot behind, and another in front, for containing the principal parts of the propelling machinery. Under the back seat of the carriage, extending its entire length, and about a foot more in depth, is an iron case, which encloses four vibrating engines on trunnions, working as many throws of a crank, radiating from their common axis at uniform angles of 90° with respect to each other. This cranked axis is lengthened out beyond the range of the engines about one foot on each side, whereon are placed two pitch chain wheels; around these pass two endless pitched chains, which also go round two similar chain wheels, fixed to the running wheels of the carriage. The chain wheels are made so as to run loose upon the cranked shaft, and are fixable thereto at pleasure, by means of coupling boxes, placed under the control of the guide or steersman, so that he may slide them into or out of gear according to circumstances, by simple pressure with his feet upon two "foot levers," one for each foot, so that by pressing on the right, the chain wheels are locked to the axis, and, by pressure on the left, the wheels are unlocked by sliding back upon the axis, when they run loose; that is, the rotation of the axis by the force of the engines does not impart motion to it.
By another movement the chain wheels are brought into action, with contiguous gear for producing a slow motion, as in ascending a hill; but when the work becomes lighter, the steersman, by his foot, shifts back the chain wheels to the quick motion, or he may entirely disengage the connecting parts, and thereby stop the progress of the carriage.
The front wheels of the carriage have separate independent axles, which turn horizontally upon a perpendicular column affixed to the fore framing. To guide the carriage, the steersman sitting in front turns a vertical spindle, the lower extremity of which carries two arms, that, by connecting rods attached to the separate frames of the two fore wheels, places them in the oblique direction required according to the curve of the road. Each of the fore wheels being thus made to turn on its own centre, renders the action of guiding exceedingly easy.
The boiler is situated quite at the back of the carriage, and it is judiciously formed of a large cylinder, with a series of small tubes passing through it for the furnace flues. The lower part of the boiler is divided by perpendicular partitions, to prevent the water from leaving it uncovered during the ascent or descent of hills or inclined planes, or from the effects of other disturbing causes. To regulate the admission of the steam to the cylinders, and its exit therefrom, a species of three-way cock is employed; this is placed under the control of the guide, so that he may diminish or increase the quantity, and by a further turn, should it be desired to stop the carriage suddenly, allow the steam to blow off. The steam from the last-mentioned cock next passes through a "distributing cock," and then enters each cylinder through passages on its trunnions, regu-ated by acock fixed on each, which admits the vapour alternately on each side of the pistons, as the cylinders vibrate on their centres. The steam which is forced out of the working cylinders by the back stroke of the pistons, is con-ducted through a pipe into a chamber, which the patentee calls the heating chest; wherein is also received the steam that blows off from the safety valve.
There is a vessel connected with the boiler, containing a float, by means of which the amount of water forced into the boiler is regulated. This pump is worked by a lever, acted upon by a cam, that revolves upon the crank shaft. The water for the supply of the boiler is forced by the pump through a long winding tube in the heating chest, by which the temperature of the fluid becomes considerably heated before it enters the boiler. There is also a float in the boiler connected with the water way of the pump, which, as the water rises in the boiler, closes the supply valve, so that if the pump continues in action, no more water can be injected, but it will be returned through the cold water pipe. There are two water tanks, one on each side of the carriage, next to the hind or propelling wheels, and between these tanks is the coal-hole.
In the year 1830, Messrs. Summers and Ogle obtained a patent for a steam carriage. The principal feature in it was the steam generating apparatus, which is already described in the article Boiler. The arrangement for communicating the force of the steam to the carriage wheels, consisted in forming the axis of the latter into a three-throw crank; each throw being equidistant, or at 120° apart from each other, for converting the rectilineal motion into rotary with the greatest uniformity of force; which motion was derived from three cylinders, vibrating on trunnions. Very flattering reports of the operation of this carriage were published, and others of a contrary character, but private interest probably influenced both sides of the question.
In the same year as the last mentioned invention, Messrs, Boase and Rawe brought out a patent locomotive carriage, the annexed illustration of which will assist in the comprehension of it. The engines were situated in a case underneath the body of the carriage, as shown at a, and by the piston rod and connecting rod b, gave motion to the cranked axles of the running wheels d of the carriage. The boiler e was bolted to a strong framing, and was contained in a double case, the space between being packed with non-conducting substances. The boiler consisted of 12 tubes of small diameter, each bent into a spiral curve of three convolutions, of the same pitch and height, but of uniformly varying diameters; so that when each successive spiral was placed side by side (the smaller inside the next larger in diameter) they formed by their concentric junction a continuous spiral sheet of tubes; with a steam chamber in the centre. Underneath the whole was the furnace of the entire area of the boiler, that is, about 4 feet 6 inches in diameter.