The preparation of the stem consists in thickening one end by upsetting, and shaping it to a 6-sided form to fit the socket-hole. A stem thus shaped is denoted by Fig. 114; and the thick part is made to fit tight in the hole, that it may be easily handled and welded in that situation. The length of the part which is in immediate contact with the enlarged end of the hole is about half of the socket's length, and while the two are together a welding heat is given them, and they are welded with a couple of angular-gap tools while the socket is between. During this welding, the tools are in contact with only that part which contains the end of the stem, in order that the hole Day not be made much smaller by the hammering. This welding reduces the thick part of the socket to the same diameter as the thinner part, and also lengthens the bearing of the stem in the hole.

The final shaping of the socket, after it is properly attached to the stem, is accom-bished by trimming off superfluous metal to make the socket to a proper length and smoothly finishing the hole with a 6-sided filler. This filler is parallel, and is carefully made so that it shall be the precise thickness and shape of the finished hole being tapered a short distance at the point, that it may enter easily into the hole when necessary. The extremity of the part which is in the hole is smoothly shaped and curved, for smoothing the bottom of the socket hole. This smoothing is effected by leafing that part of the socket and hammering the end of the stem while the filler is in he hole and touches its bottom. To conveniently hammer the stem, the filler is put into the hole, and the outer end of the filler is then put to the floor with the socket-stem extending upwards, the filler resting on a soft iron block or lead block, whose top is level with the floor; while thus arranged, the upper end of the stem is hammered and he bottom of the hole is shaped.

A filler of this class, in the hole of a socket is represented by Fig. 115. Through such a filler being nearly or quite parallel along a reat part of its length, it cannot he released from any socket after being once hammered in, without eating it and enlarging the hole lough to let out the filler with idling in a vice, or similar means.

The handle end of the stem for socket spanner is provided with a ale, if to be used with a separate ever, or provided with a T handle, to be rotated by such means; and the spanner has a bent stem, contituting a handle which is at right angles to the length of the socket, he stem is heated to make the end in the right place, after all the joint-making is completed.

If a socket spanner is not to be the-turned, it is necessary to care-fully reduce the work to a proper ape and dimensions while on the foil; but if to be turned, a proper amount of metal is allowed, that the socket may not be too thin. A socket spanner is turned while its handle end is supported on the andrel pivot of a lathe, and its socket part is supported on a broad conical pivot, which large enough to bear on the edges of the hole's mouth. By this method, the socket accurately turned so that one side shall be just as thick as the opposite side, and if e entire length of the socket were forged parallel to the drift while in the hole, the tire outer surface of the socket when turned would be also parallel with the hole.

A spanner which has a boss at one end containing a square, 6-sided, or round hole, forged at one end of a bar which is nearly as thick as the length of the boss which is have the hole. At the end of the bar a portion is reduced until small enough for the indle, and the thick portion adjoining is punched with a taper, square, or round punch, and also drifted while at welding heat with taper drifts of proper shapes. In Fig. 116 spanner being made at one end of a bar is shown, and may be partly drifted while attached to the bar, and also afterwards, while separate, as denoted by Fig. 117. When it is cut from the bar, the shaping of the boss is completed by hammering the outside while at welding heat, and by fullers applied to the junction of the boss with the handle; during both these processes a drift is in the hole; a drift is also in the hole of a boss, which is circular, and being rounded with half-round top and bottom tools.

Spanners Continued 116Spanners Continued 117Spanners Continued 118Spanners Continued 119

The drifts for enlarging the holes are very taper, similar to the one shown in Fig. 117, and those for adjusting holes to proper diameters are so nearly parallel that they appear parallel to ordinary observation. A parallel drift is indicated in Fig. 118 and is tapered at each end, to prevent its being stopped by the burs made with hammering while being driven into or out of a hole.

Several drifts of various sizes and shapes are always kept ready by the smith, and by a proper use of the parallel ones a spanner with a circular hole can be enlarged until the desired amount of metal remains for boring the boss to the stated dimensions; and if the spanner being finished has a square or 6-sided hole, it can be drifted until it fits the nuts, bolt heads, spindle end, plug end, or other works for which the spanner is made, thus avoiding much filing, drifting with cutting drifts, and other lengthy processes.