Canada balsam, 1 oz.; spirits of turpentine, 2 oz. Mix them together. Before this composition is applied, the drawing or priut should be sized with a solution of isinglass in water, and when dry apply the varnish with a camel-hair brush.
1. Honey, 1 pint; the whites of 24 fresh eggs; 1 oz. of isinglass, 20 grs. of hydrate of potassium, 1/2 oz. common salt; mix together over a gentle heat of 80° or 90° Fahr.; be careful not to let the mixture remain long enough to coagulate the albumen of the eggs; stir the mixture thoroughly, then bottle. Take one tablespoonful of the varnish and add to it half a tablespoonful of good oil of turpentine, then spread on the picture as soon as mixed. 2. Digest at a slow heat gum sandarach, 2 parts; gum mastic, 4; balsam capivi, 2; white turpentine, 3; with spirits of turpentine, 4; and alcohol 50-56 parts. 3. Boil 5 parts bitter apple, freed from the seeds and cut, with rain-water 50 parts, down to one-half. Strain and dissolve in the liquor gum arabic, 8 parts; rock candy, 4; and add 1 of alcohol. Let it stand for some days, and filter. 4. Pure linseed oil, to which a small quantity of sugar of lead, ground fine, has been added. 5. Take equal quantities of linseed oil and oil of turpentine, thicken by exposure to the sun and air until it becomes resinous and half evaporated, then add a portion of melted beeswax.
1. Pale Canada balsam and rectified oil of turpentine equal parts. 2. Mastic in tears and sandarach, each 4 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 1/2 pint; dissolve, and add pale Canada balsam 1/2 pint. Melt the balsam with a gentle heat, mix with the other ingredients and agitate violently. No. 1 is also termed Crystal Varnish.
Digest shellac, 16 parts: gum sandarach and mastic, of each 3; crocus, 1; gum gamboge, 2; all bruised, with alcohol, 144. Or, digest seed-lac, sandarach, mastic, of. each 8 parts; gamboge, 2; dragon's blood, 1; white turpentine, 6; turmeric, 4; bruised, with alcohol, 120.
Gam-lac, 125 parts; gamboge, 125; dragon's blood, 125; annatto, 125; saffron, 32. Dissolve each resin in 1000 parts by measure, of absolute alcohol; two separate mixtures must be made with the dragon's blood and annatto, in 1000 parts of such alcohol; and a proper proportion of each should be added with the gamboge to the varnish, according to the shade of colour required.
1. Durable leather varnish is composed of boiled linseed oil, in which a drier, such as litharge, has been boiled. It is coloured with lampblack. This varnish is used for making enamelled leather. 2. Digest shellac, 12 parts; white turpentine, 5; gum sandarach, 2; lampblack, 1; with spirits of turpentine, 4; alcohol, 96.
1. Tender copal, 7 1/2 oz.; camphor, 1 oz.; alcohol of 95 per cent., 1 quart. Dissolve, then add mastic, 2 oz.; Venice turpentine, 1 oz. Dissolve and strain. Very white, drying, and capable of being polished when hard. Used for toys. 2. Sandarach, 8 oz.; mastic, 2 oz.; Canada balsam, 4 oz.; alcohol, 1 quart. Rectified spirits of wine, 1 quart; gum sandarach, 10 oz.; gum mastic, 2 oz.; gum anime, 1/2 oz. Dissolve in a clean can, with gentle heat. Agitate well when the gums are dissolved; strain through a lawn sieve.
1. Oil of turpentine, 1 lb.; beeswax, 2 oz.; colophony, 1 drachm. 2. Dammar resin, 1 lb.; spirits of turpentine, 2 lbs.; camphor, 200 grains. Digest the mixture for twenty-four hours. The decanted portion is fit for immediate use.
First make the work quite clean; then fill up all knots or blemishes with cement of the same colour; see that the brush is clean, and free from loose hairs; then dip the brush in the varnish, stroke it along the wire raised across the top of the varnish pot, and give the work a thin and regular coat; soon after that another, and another, always taking care not to pass the brush twice in the same place; let it stand to dry in a moderately warm place, that the varnish may not chill. When the work has had about six or seven coats, let it get quite hard (which prove by pressing the knuckles on it; if it leaves a mark it is not hard enough); then with the first three fingers of the hand rub the varnish till it chafes, and proceed over that part of the work intended to be polished, in order to take out all the streaks or partial lumps made by the brush; then give it another coat, and let it stand a day or two to harden.
1. Shellac, 1 1/2 lb.; naphtha, 1 gallon; dissolve, and it is ready without filtering. 2. Shellac, 12 oz.; copal, 3 oz. (or an equivalent of varnish); dissolve in 1 gallon of naphtha. 3. Shellac, 1 1/2 lb.; seed-lac and sandarach, each 4 oz.; mastic, 2 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 gallon; dissolve. 4. Shellac, 2 lbs.; benzoin, 4 oz.; spirit, 1 gallon. 5. Shellac, 10 oz.; seed-lac, sandarach, and copal varnish, of each 6 oz.; benzoin, 3 oz.; naphtha, 1 gallon. To darken, benzoin and dragon's blood are used, turmeric and other colouring matters are also added; and to make it lighter it is necessary to use bleached lac, though some endeavour to give this effect by adding oxalic acid to the ingredients; it, like gum arabic, is insoluble in good spirit or naphtha. For all ordinary purposes the first form is best and least troublesome, while its appearance is equal to any other.
Clear pale resin, 3 1/2 lbs.; oil of turpentine, 1 gallon; dissolve. It may be coloured darker by adding a little fine lampblack.