The following recipes will produce papers, smooth, strong, tough, and possessing elasticity of feel and clearness of colour: -

Cream, extra superfine (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F.F., 1/4; dark fines, 1/4; green linen, 1/4; new pieces, 1/4; 4 oz. ultramarine, marked B.B.A.C.; 1 1/2 gill cochineal; 40 lb. pearl hardening.

Cream, superfine (300 lb. dry paper). Dark fines, 1/4; S.P.F., 1/4; superfines,1/4; Spanish esparto, fine, 1/4; 6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.; 1 gill cochineal; 40 lb. pearl hardening; 14 lb. dry starch.

Creams, fine (300 lb. dry paper). Medium Spanish esparto, 1/4; fines, 1/4; F.F., 1/2; 7 oz. ultramarine, marked B.B.R.V.; 1 1/2 gill cochineal.

Commercial post, animal sized, extra superfine (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F.F.F., 1/2: dark fines, 1/4; new pieces, 1/4; 3 gal. engine size; 5 lb. pure alum; 5 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.; 1 pint cochineal; 1/4 oz. carmine; 40 lb. pearl hardening.

Commercial post, animal sized, superfine (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F.F., 1/2; dark fines, ; supers, ; 3 gal. engine size; 6 lb. pure alum: 6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.; 1 1/2 gill cochineal; 1 gill archil; 14 lb. starch; 40 lb. pearl hardening.

Commercial post, animal sized, fine cream (300 lb. dry paper). F.F. Russian rags, 1/2; seconds, 1/4; No. 2 Spanish esparto, 1/4; 6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V.; 1 gill magenta; 6 gal. size; 10 lb. alum.

Creams, fourth (3001b. dry paper), (a) Second fines, 1/4; F.F., 1/4; No. 2 Spanish esparto, 1/2; 6 pails size; 30 lb. alum; 9 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V.; 2 gills archil. (6) Fine Oran esparto, 1/2; Tunis esparto, 1/4; F.F. rags, 1/4; 9 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V.; 2 gills magenta; 4 lb. dry starch.

Drawing cartridge, superior quality, no colouring matter. Cartridge, 1/2; good canvas, 1/4; good seconds, 1/4.

Post, extra superfine (300 lb. dry paper). Supers, \; green linen, 1/4; new pieces, 1/4; S.P.F.F.F., 1/4; 3 oz. ultramarine, A.C.; 2 oz. carmine. (The highest class of post paper made.)

Blue, extra superfine, high colour (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F., 1/4; dark fines, 1/4; fine Spanish esparto, 1/2; 9 1/2 lb. ultramarine, B.B.R.V.; 1/2 lb. magenta lake.

Card, superfine, animal sized (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F., 1/2; fines, 1/4; seconds, 1/4; 3 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.; 1 gill archil; 30 lb. pearl hardening.

Drawing cartridge, superfine, animal sized, no colouring matter and no clay. Cartridge, 1/2; sailcloth without seams, 1/4; seconds, 1/4. (A superior cartridge.)

Drawing cartridge, second quality, animal sized. F.F., 1/4; thirds, 1/4; No. 2 Spanish esparto, 1/2; 4 lb. starch; 20 lb. pearl hardening.

Envelope, superfine cream, animal sized (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F., 1/2; seconds, 1/4; new pieces, 1/4; 3 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.; 1 1/2 pint cochineal; 12 lb. starch.

Blue, superfine high (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F., 1/4; medium Spanish esparto, 1/2; Scotch fines, 1/4; 12 lb. ultramarine marked A; 3/4 lb. magenta lake.

Blue, fine high (300 lb. dry paper). F.F., 1/2; fine Oran esparto, 1/2; 8 lb. ultramarine, marked B.B.R.V.; 1/2 lb. magenta lake.

Washing End Breaking

The rags should be gradually introduced into an engine, previously half filled with water. When the desired quantity (never too thick and difficult to turn) is filled in, go on washing, and let down the roll just sufficient to open up the rags and let the dirt escape, at the same time using the stirring stick above the sand trap, round the sides, and at the back fall of the engine. This prevents "lodgers,"-or pieces of rag not reduced to half-stuff, hanging about, which, if allowed to escape, would cause knots and grey specks in the paper. The rags must on no account be cut up or forced, but drawn out into fibre without having the smallest particle of rag unreduced to half-stuff; and this can only be accomplished by a liberal use of the stirring-stick and the valve-hook at the back fall of the engine. When the stuff is in condition for emptying into the drainers, the valve should be drawn with care, and deposited on the floor until the engine is empty. Before replacing, the valve must be carefully washed, as the hole on the top gets full of dirt.and sand, which, when the valve is carelessly drawn, escapes with the stuff. Next lift the sand trap plate, and remove carefully all impurities, replace the plate, and fill up again.

If too quickly reduced to half-stuff, the material is weakened, and the washing is insufficiently done; while, if the stuff is properly drawn out into fibre and timed, its texture is not injured, it is better washed, and makes a stronger paper.

Draining And Pressing

When the stuff is emptied from the washing-engine into the drainers, it immediately commences to drain, and when properly drained for removal, is subjected to pressure. The best method of pressing the water from the stuff is by the extractor (centrifugal drainer), which dries the stuff sufficiently either for gas-ing or conveying to the poacher, as the case may be. This department ought to be kept scrupulously clean, supplied with a box to contain any stuff that may get dirty, all boxes or waggons periodically washed, and the floor washed once a day.