Again, for pressing down or " pinning " the joint edges of moulds, and so preventing crushing, the trowel is always used, as it is for scraping out core prints when too small for their cores, and for cutting vent channels or gutters, making good the joints of cores and drawbacks, and for a multitude of kindred uses,i (Fig. 211) shows the common form of trowel, about 5 in. long. This is called the "square " trowel, to distinguish it from the " heart " trowel h, j illustrates a combination trowel called the " heart" and "square," which is used only as a touching-up and finishing tool, being made in smaller sizes than the other.

The remaining figures represent tools which are all used for cleaning, mending, sleeking, and finishing moulds. They are called by different names, though their functions are essentially similar, the names being derived from the more especial uses to which they are applied, or to their fancied resemblance to common articles, k is the "cleaner,*' a tool which ranks next after the trowel in point of general utility. Its long thin blade is used for cleaning and smoothing the vertical faces of the deep and narrow portions of moulds into which the trowel would not reach, for mending up similar sections where the fingers cannot enter, for boring holes in moulds for chaplet stalks, and for core vents; while the turned-out foot, standing at right angles with the end opposite, is used for lifting out sand which has fallen into the bottom of deep narrow moulds, for mending up and making good damaged parts similarly situated, for pressing sand around cores after they have been placed in their prints, and for many similar purposes besides.

These cleaners are made in widths of blade ranging from J in. to about 1 1/4 in.

Moulders' tools.

Moulders' tools.

All the remaining tools (Fig. 212) are finishing tools. Taking them in order, l is a square corner "sleeker," or " slicker," or " slaker," or " smoother," and is used for sleeking the internal faces of moulds which stand at right angles with each other, m is a tool of the same character, but having one face curved for sweeps, n is a head tool, used for sleeking the hollow impressions left by heads, o is a hollow head, by which the rounding edges of moulds are finished, or those edges which become the " hollows " of the casting. All these are made in several sizes, large and small, as convenient, p is a spoon tool, the shapes of the bowls resembling those of spoons. They are handy for finishing hollow work. The head tool r differs from the spoon tools in being narrow, parallel, and quicker in curve. It is used for cleaning and finishing heads in circular and hollow work. q is & tool differing from the last in having square edges, which sufficiently indicate its use. v w x are flange tools, being used for smoothing the bottom edges and sides of flanges and flange-like moulds. y z are boss tools, s is a button sleeker, t is a pipe sleeker, and u a modification of the latter.

All the tools in this group are made in different sizes, and some in modified forms, and all alike, either in iron or in brass. They require to be kept clean, and free from rust and dirt. For special work other tools besides these are made. The most convenient box in which to keep these small tools is a plain open one with a bridge of iron screwed across the top, by which to carry it from one part of the shop to another, as required. - (Industries.)