Bookbinding has been already described in vol. iv. pp. 228-267.

Cloth-bound books, that is, books which have been sent out by the publisher in cloth cases, by reason of the demand for cheap books, are, at the best, but very imperfectly bound; and, as a consequence, after the first reading they require to be repaired - in many cases, if the book is worth it, re-bound. This is not the fault of the publisher's binder; he must do them cheaply because the public demand a cheap book.

These books, during the process of binding, pass through from 10 to 20 different operations, and the price which the binder gets for his complete work would hardly cover the cost of sewing in other circumstances; and yet every dodge is tried to make them as strong as possible, and to wear well in the hands of the public.

Whenever they begin to show signs of getting loose, or if a leaf or a section comes away, the best plan is to take them to pieces and re-sew them and put them into the case. We call this " re-casing, " and if done properly the book will last very much longer than it would have done in the original binding. To do this successfully, proceed in the following manner: - Open both boards back until they touch each other, allowing the book to stand upon one end, as shown at Fig. 343; insert a sharp knife at the back between the case and the book, and cut carefully down one side through the lining (and tapes or cords, if any), then down the other side ; this will separate the book from, the case. The case may now be laid aside, and the book taken to pieces. Begin by laying the book upon the bench with the front up. The back will thus be at the left-hand. Lift the half of the endpaper which still adheres to the book, and gently but firmly remove it, laying it over to the left-hand, with the face down. Do not throw it away; in the meantime it will keep the title-page clean. Now turn over leaf by leaf until you come to a signature: this is a letter or a number at the bottom right-hand page of every section.

The first which you will come to is likely to be B or 2, and this is likely on page 17. When you have found this, give it a gentle pull, first from the head, then from the tail; this will expose the thread with which the book has been sewn; cut this thread all the way down with a knife, and so separate the sheet from the rest of the book. Now open this sheet at the centre, and remove the threads which will be found; then scrape off the glue from the back of the sheet, and lay it down upon the end-paper face down at the left-hand. Go through the book in the same way, looking always for the signatures, which will follow in alphabetical or numerical order. If divided at any other place the sheet will be torn, which should be carefully avoided. It may, however, happen that a sheet has. been torn even before the "taking-down " was commenced; in that case," tip " the leaf or leaves with paste, and lay it carefully along the back of the other part of the section. Leaves thus pasted do not open up to the back like the other leaves of the book, and this may be an objection to some people. A narrow strip of tissue-paper nil! join two leaves together nicely; they can then be placed in the book, and will open up as well as any other leaf.

If a leaf is torn across the page, take a little paste upon the ringer and paste the edges of the torn part; place a strip of tissue along the tear, both sides, and leave it to dry. It can then be torn away, and in doing so the tissue will skin or split, and leave sufficient sticking along where it was pasted to thoroughly mend the tear. Music is mended in this way, bat it will be best to paste the tissue all over, and leave it upon the leaf; the heavy printing of the music shows through well enough to be read, and the mend is hardly seen at all.

Dog-ears can be taken out of the leaves of a book by damping them slightly with the tongue, as the most ready means, and pinching them across the corner with the finger and thumb.

When the book has been all taken down, the joint is hammered out of it - i.e. you will find some of the sections bent at the back, hammer these flat. When this is done, it la kntcked up straight and sawn in for three bands, and sewn as already directed. The case should now be cleaned inside, all the old lining should be stripped off, the back strengthened by putting a strip of strong brown paper upon it. The book is end-papered, lined, and put into the case; the directions for which have already been given.

If a cloth case is "torn at the joint, do not attempt to mend it liv setting it, or even gluing a piece of cloth on the outside of the cover. Take it off the book, and insert a lint knife along the broken part-to raise the cloth from the board; cut a strip of binders' cloth a* near the colour of the case as possible. Glue it, and slip it in below the part yon have raised, glued side to the board, of course; allow it to be broad enough to come into the back about half-way, rub it down well. Now glue the part which was raised off the cover with the linger, and lay it down neatly upon the new piece. The dotted lines in Fig. 343 will show the position of the patch, which must be between the board and the cover. A corner may be patched in the same way by lifting the cover and slipping the patch under. If patches of cloth are put on the top of the cover, they will peel off in no time, and will require continual sticking down.

Re casing a book.

Re-casing a book.

Cloth cases which have become faded or spotted by rain or otherwise, may be freshened up by washing with diluted glair, about half and half glair and water. A large sponge should be used, and the gilded parts avoided as well as possible. The glair dims the gold. After the book has become thoroughly dry, it should be rubbed lightly all over with a piece of pure rubber (not the vulcanised stuff that is used for cleaning paper); this will take away remaining dirt, and brighten up the gold a little.

Leather-bound books are treated much the same. It will, however, seldom be necessary to re-sew these, because they will have been sewn much stronger than cloth books. If the board is torn away at the joint, treat it exactly as directed for the cloth book: Take away the case and patch it with a piece of leather same colour as the original cover, putting it between the cover and the board; if both boards are torn, remove them and the old back as carefully as possible; raise up the leather along the back of the old boards, put on a new piece (bringing it over on both sides), turn it in, and lay down the old cover upon the top, pasting it well, and, when thoroughly dry, paste on the old back upon the new one. The book will also require new end papers. These can be put in from the directions already given. Instead of washing leather covers with glair, use paste-water. When dry, a coat of thin shellac varnish will improve the appearance.

- It is, unfortunately, impossible to re-gild them unless they are taken to the original binder, who alone has the necessary tools. New lettering-pieces, however, may be made at any binder's, the cost of which would only be a few pence, and put on over the old one, or the old one may be removed entirely and the new one put in its place.

Photographic albums are a source of much trouble. The cheaper sorts are after a few weeks' usage very much dilapidated, and although we may feel proud of our collection of photographs, yet we feel ashamed of our album, and fail to bring it out when our friends call upon us, and thus deprive them of a pleasure and ourselves of a means of entertaining them.

Albums may, however, be patched and mended to look as good as new, and may even be made stronger than they were at first. The point of weakness in albums is the joints. Each leaf has, or should have, a joint. In the better kinds these joints are made of cloth or leather. You will observe that these joints are placed underneath the paper forming the leaves. When patching a leaf, remove the paper carefully, or rather raise it from the joint, take out the old one and put in the new one, whether it is leather or cloth, and paste the paper down again. Go over every leaf carefully, and put in new joints where required. Take the album out of the case. This is easily done, as the end paper is thick, and only sticking to the board at the edges.

If there has been a lining on the back, take it off, and straighten every leaf. You will find them shift about in all ways if moved by the fingers. Glue the back well with good strong glue, not too thick, and cut a piece of strong linen the length of the back and about 2 in. broader; glue this and put k on the back, allowing 1 in. to come on each side. Take care to make this stick well to the back by rubbing it closely with a folder or the handle of a tooth-brush. Strengthen the back of the case by gluing a strip of brown paper inside. Place the album in the case again, glue the end-papers, and put it in the press. Leave the back open, for if glued to the album it will not open freely, and the leaves will stand up instead of lying flat.

The leaves are often slit where the cards are put in. These can be mended as the leaves of a book are mended; description already given. (Eng. Mech.