Pastes and mucilages are best kept in covered vessels tall enough to permit the brush to remain inside with the cover on. It should never be allowed to become encrusted with hardened paste, and the brusli should frequently be cleansed.

The formulas here presented are but partly original with the writer. All have been in use satisfactorily and may prove useful to bottlers.

1. Starch Paste. - Pour boiling water over starch, or starch into boiling water, and stir until the whole is a homogeneous paste. Boiling of the mass is not advisable. The paste may be preserved by dissolving a little alum or salicylic acid in the water used.

2. Rye flour paste is even better than starch paste and prepared alike. Both pastes are improved if in the boiling water employed some glue has been previously dissolved. An addition of some turpentine (about half of the quantity of starch or rye flour employed) to the paste, and thorough mixing with it while still warm, makes the paste better and indifferent to dampness.

3. Another flour paste is made as follows: Flour 4 ounces; water 1 pint; nitric acid 40 minims; oil of cloves 5 minims; carbolic acid 5 minims. Thoroughly mix the flour and water; strain through a sieve; add the nitric acid; apply heat until thoroughly cooked, and, when nearly cold, add the oil of cloves and carbolic acid for preservation. This makes an excellent paste for bottles, tin or wooden boxes. In dry climates, the addition of about 5 per cent, of glycerine prevents it from drying up too soon in the mucilage pot.

4. A durable paste is made as follows : Four parts, by weight, of glue are allowed to soften in 15 parts of cold water for some hours, and then moderately heated until the solution becomes quite clear. Sixty-five parts of water are now added, with constant stirring. In another vessel 30 parts of starch paste are stirred in 20 of cold water, so that a thin milky fluid is obtained without lumps. Into this the boiling solution of glue is poured, with constant stirring, and the whole kept at a boiling temperature. After cooling, 10 drops of carbolic acid are added to the paste. This paste is of extraordinary adhesive power and may be used for other than labeling purposes also. It must be preserved in closed bottles to prevent evaporation of the water, and will in this way keep good for years.

5. A paste to resist damp is made as follows : Prepare a paste of good rye flour and glue in the usual way and proportions, to which linseed oil, varnish and turpentine have been added in the proportion of one half ounce of each to the pound. The above two pastes may withstand the action of the water in soaking and washing the bottles, but they are not guaranteed to resist repeated washings.

Fig. 280.   Label Gummer

Fig. 280. - Label Gummer.

6. Take 10 parts of already dissolved gum tragacanth, add 10 parts of honey and one part of wheat flour. The flour helps to dry quicker, and renders the cement less accessible to humidity.

7. Another cement, which resists humidity even better, is made of two parts of shellac, one part of borax and 16 pints of water, boiled together.

8. Soak glue in strong vinegar, heat it to boiling, and add to it a quantity of fine flour, until it becomes rather thick. This paste adheres strongly to glass, etc., and may be kept without spoiling in a wide-mouthed glass-stoppered bottle. Should it become too thick a small quantity may be removed and warmed, when it may be readily applied to paper.

9. Gum tragacanth, 1 oz.; gum arabic, 4 ozs.; dissolve in water, 1 pint; strain and add thymol, 14 grains, suspended in glycerine, 4 ozs.; finally add water, to make 2 pints. This makes a thin paste, suitable for labeling bottles, wooden or tin boxes, or for any other purpose paste is ordinarily called for. This paste will keep indefinitely, the thymol preventing fermentation. It will separate on standing, but a single shake will mix it sufficiently for use.

10. Eye flour, 4 ozs.; powdered gum arabic, 1/2 oz.; boiling water 1 pint. Mix until dissolved to a clear mucilage.

11. Dextrin, 8 parts; acetic acid, 2 parts; alcohol, 2 parts; water 10 parts. Mix dextrin, water, and acetic acid to a smooth paste, then add the alcohol. This makes a paste suited for labeling bottles.

12. Liquid glue is prepared by breaking the glue in small fragments and introducing these in a suitable glass vessel, and pouring ordinary whiskey instead of water over them. Cork tightly and set aside for three or four days, when it will be ready for use, without the necessity of applying heat. Thus prepared, the mixture will keep unaltered for years and will remain permanently liquid, except in very cold weather, when it will be found necessary to place the bottle in warm water for a little time before using. The vessel in which it is kept must, of course, be kept always tightly corked to prevent the volatilizing of the solvent.

13. Another liquid glue is prepared by filling a glass vessel with the best broken-up glue and covering with acetic acid. Keep the glass in hot water for a few hours, until the glue is melted, and an excellent glue always ready for use is obtained.

14. A mucilage for bottling purposes is prepared by mixing 6 ounces gum arabic with one ounce acetic acid, 5 ounces of water and 1 ounce white sugar.