The cuts appended next represent the continuous apparatus, "Bramah system" of the French Plan, manufactured and improved by J. Boulet & Co., successors to Hermann-Lachapelle, Paris, and others.

This apparatus consists of five essential parts: The generator, the purfier, the gasometer, the saturator with pump, and the bottling arrangements for bottles and syphons. For larger establishments two satu-rators with two pumps are advantageous, allowing to bottle two different kinds of water (mineral water and pure water for saccharine beverages) at the same time; also the bottling arrangement may be enlarged.

Fig. 102.   Complete French Continuous Apparatus with one Saturator

Fig. 102. - Complete French Continuous Apparatus with one Saturator.

The generator and purifier rest together on a cast-iron support. Both are of copper and are in shape and size alike. (Fig. 104.)

The generator consists of two parts, a cylinder A in which the decomposition of the carbonate takes place, and the acid chamber B; both are air tight, connected.

Fig. 105 represents a sectional view of the generator; it is lead-lined inside, and rests with its semi-globular bottom on the cast-iron support 0 0, to which it is fastened by the two bolts P P; A is the opening for the introduction of the carbonate and water, and is closed by a brass cap that has inside a rubber ring to make it fit tightly, and this cap is fastened with movable screw K. The opening on the semi-globular bottom is for removing the exhausted materials; a cap which is fastened by the screw j, closes here air tight. The horizontal agitator with semi-round fans E and F, turned by the crank f is strong enough to mix the materials in the generator. The shaft, made of brass and lined with lead, moves in the boxes g g, which are laid out with strong leather. The two fans E F are fastened to the shaft by the 4 screws i i i i. The opening j at the upper section of the generator is by means of screws tightly connected with the lead pipe leading the gas over to the purifier. The acid chamber B of cylindrical form rests directly on the generator A, thus making both appear one piece. It is also made of copper, thickly lead-lined, and closed by a brass plate that is stationary, screwed on to the top. Through the opening D in this plate, the acid is introduced by the aid of a leaden funnel and closed by a screw with brass handle. The flow of the acid into the generator is regulated by the movable rod C; it is of copper, lined with lead, and at the end adjusted with a plunger of platina, exactly fitting and closing the opening that connects the acid chamber with the generator. This rod is connected by m with a screw, that goes through the centre of that brass plate, and is movable with the arm o on which an indicator is adjusted. This indicator runs over the index plate n, regulating the opening to the generator and the flow of acid. The leaden pipe D is to equalize the pressure in generator and acid chamber. The brass plate can be unscrewed with a suitable key, and taken off to view the inside of the acid chamber. 14

Fig. 103.   French Apparatus with Two Saturators

Fig. 103. - French Apparatus with Two Saturators.

Fig. 104.   Sectional View of Generator with Purifier

Fig. 104. - Sectional View of Generator with Purifier.

Fig. 105.   Sectional View of Generator

Fig. 105. - Sectional View of Generator.

The purifier (Fig. 104) consists of a copper cylinder C, inside tinned, by a vertical partition separated in two parts, and of a strong cylinder of glass D on top, being the third washer, and allowing observations on the process of gas generating.

The bottom being of the same semi-globular shape as the generator, rests on the same iron support and is fastened by the bolts P P.

At the upper section of the purifier are three openings, two of which are adjusted with screw couplings. One of them opening on the front side communicates with both partitions of the purifier, and here the water is introduced by the aid of a funnel and closed by a cap with a rubber ring to assure tight fitting. The second opening takes pipe q, which leads the carbonic acid gas from the generator to purifier, and which is tightly adjusted by the aid of the screw coupling. The third opening serves to lead the carbonic acid by the pipe II to the gasometer. The opening at the bottom of purifier, communicating with both partitions, is to let the water run out, in case of renewal; it is closed like the opening at the bottom of generator. Pipe F leads the gas that arrives through q down to the bottom of the first partition in purifier; through pipe Gr it passes into the second partition. On the side of the purifier is a small opening, which gets closed with bolt jt and which serves as a water-gauge for both partitions when they get filled.

The third partition of the purifier, as already stated, consists of conical glass cylinder D, made of very strong glass. It fits tightly in a curve, laid out with rubber, on the brass plate i i, that is stationary, fastened to the cylinder 0. The brass plate K, which is tinned inside, serves as a cover and fits in a curve, also laid out with rubber, on the glass cylinder D. The cover K and the glass cylinder D are fastened by the bolt M, which is in two parts and goes through the cover K, on the plate i i. Through an opening in plate K the water is inserted and closed by screw L; by way of the pipes N N the carbonic acid passes in and out. These pipes can be taken out in case an accident should occur to the glass cylinder D; the cover K fits accurately in the curves of plate i i. In case of an accident, and if no other glass cylinder is at hand, the pipes N N are removed, cover K is put and fitted on plate i i, and fastened by way of bolt M, which then will reach down in the incurvation of the partition E. The carbonic acid gas will then circulate in the space left between cover K and plate i i, and still take its way through pipe H and screw coupling No. 1, thus causing no interruption in the operation, except that the third part of the purifier cannot be used. This third part of the purifier completes the purification of the carbonic acid gas, but especially enables the carbonator to watch the evolution of gas and regulate the flow of acid accordingly, and if ever a breakage of this glass cylinder should happen, it can be renewed with little expense.