This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
The gasometer receives the gas through inlet No. 2. The bell E is of galvanized iron plates, also the tub F with concave bottom, on which is an opening P, generally with a stop-cock, for the discharge of water. On the semi-globular top of the bell E is a small cock attached, through which the atmospheric air is allowed to escape, after the tube has been filled with water and carbonic acid gas passed in for the first time. The iron support j j with h carries the suspensory arrangement with two movable rolls T T, over which the cords run that are connected with the bell E at s s and with the balance weights L L; both poles j j are fastened to the tube by the screws p p p p. The downward bend pipe G leads the gas from inlet No. 2 under the bell of gasometer; the pipe H, which reaches above the surface of the water, receives the gas from under the gasometer bell and leads it to the pump through outlet No. 3. A bent iron rod i i i supports the two pipes G and H.
The saturator is the most important factor of this apparatus. It consists of different parts which are in a practical way united to a whole on a cast-iron support. They are: the shaft y, the flying wheel and the cock wheel V, the double action pump F, the water tank N, the regulating cock G, the saturator H, the mon-ometer K, safety valve I, and water-gauge L.
The movable parts of the saturator are put in motion by a shaft revolving in a brass socket arranged on top of the iron support, and the cock wheel V. The agitator L L in the saturator is turned by the cock wheel K, and the piston rod U of the pump by the crank T of the shaft. The shaft itself is moved by the fly-wheel Q, and the motive power is hand or steam, the crank w for hand and the fast-and-loose pulleys A A for steam power. Three grease boxes v v v furnish the necessary oil to reduce the friction.
Fig. 106. - The Gasometer.
The suction and pressure pump E of brass, well tinned inside, is connected with the iron stative by the screws s s. The fork rod U is set in motion at the crank T by the fly-wheel Q, or pulleys A A. With the end of this fork rod is the piston of the pump connected by means of bolt L, that goes at right angles through rod R, which serves the piston as leader. The piston draws water and carbonic acid gas at the same time, and is constantly covered with liquid, preventing access of air and escape of carbonic acid. The iron rod K reaches into the pump-cylinder, made of copper, and is fastened to it with v. The piston cylinder is tightened at the cylindrical extension N N with a layer of leather supported by the nut M. At the screw I some water is introduced before the pump is set in operation. In the connection part of the pump at s s are the suction and pressure valves arranged. From II a pipe leads to the saturator. Cock Cr regulates the part under the suction valve. The two pieces H and G are connected with the pump to a whole by the aid of screw y. This connection is convenient and offers the opportunity of easily examining the valves and its interior. The valve balls o o lie on rings or beds of leather s s, that serve to tighten the connections of II and G with the pump. The screw Y and nut I hold the parts together and fasten them.
Fig. 107. - The Saturator.
Cock G has a perforation at H, allowing the water and gas to pass at the same time and in varying quantities according to the adjustment of the cock or the registering of the key. If more water and less gas is required, turn the handle of the cock so the index points towards "Eau" (water), if more gas and less water is required point the index towards "Gaz" (gas). If the same quantity of water and gas is required, point index straight on 3. This is the way to operate with the quantities of water and gas required. The pressure is indicated on pressure-gauge attached to saturator, and the quantity of water on the water-gauge.
Fig. 108. - Sectional View of Saturator.
Fig. 109. - Suction and Pressure Pump.
When the piston of the pump does a downward stroke and cock G is opened, water and carbonic acid are drawn in, which aspiration lifts the ball o in the suction valve against its catch-sieve, and at the same time and by the same aspiration the ball o in the exit valve H is held downwards, and water and carbonic acid gas fill then the interior of the pump; when the piston strikes upwards the movement of the balls o o is the reverse, the downward ball is closing the entrance and the upward ball lifted against its catch-sieve by the pressure exercised by the stroke, and water and gas are forced towards the saturator.
The reservoir N, Fig. 108, is tinned inside and adjusted in the interior of the stative by a ball-swimmer connected with the water supply cock o, (Fig. 110); the water always is kept at a constant increase. If the ball sinks it opens the supply cock and allows the flow of water from the water tank; if the water rises to a certain height, the cock gets closed. At the bottom of the reservoir is an opening y closed by a screw, with handle for discharging the contents when the reservoir shall be cleaned.
Fig. 110. - Index Cock.
Fig. 111. - Another Sectional View of ! Saturator.
The saturator H is of globular shape of brass and cast in one piece; very durable and of great resistance. Its exterior is polished. The interior is tinned for tne manufacture of mineral waters and saccharine beverages, and silvered for the manufacture of champagnes. It rests with a large opening downward on the top plate of the stative, and is closed tightly by the cover S and a rubber ring u. The two screws A secure the connection. In this cover are two openings. Pipe R is fitted in one and connected with the pump, thus introducing the water and carbonic acid. The other pipe is for drawing the impregnated liquid. Cock P is at O connected with this discharge pipe and regulates the outlet, leading to the bottling apparatus. All connections are tightened with leather oi hemp packing, and so arranged that the packing comes not in contact with the liquid; only new and fatted leather ought to be used.