"The joint in the centre is made with patent inodorous packing; the agitator has a support outside at both ends, and is fitted with glass lubricators; all metallic friction is exterior, the band-wheels having double supports each side, so preventing strain on the packing; it is fitted with patent dial-pressure indicator, blow-back safety-valve, and water gaugej three or four high-pressure valves are also fitted for draw-off, and the whole is so arranged that each of the different parts can be got at without obstruction, for tightening, repairs, etc. The inside is coated with pure block tin, or it can be silvered at an extra cost of from 8 to 15. It has a strong tinned copper agitator running the full length (which may be driven from shafting overhead, or from a wheel on crank of pump), attached to which is a fast-and-loose pulley with striking gear for throwing band on or off. The safety-valve has a pipe to take off the surplus pressure, which may be connected to the gasometer or otherwise. There is a double advantage in this, as it economizes the gas, and also prevents the water splashing over the cylinder. The water-gauge has a protecting guard over the glass tube in case of its breaking, and so prevents the possibility of an accident".

Fig. 65.   Single Horizontal Carbonating Cylinder

Fig. 65. - Single Horizontal Carbonating Cylinder.

These are separate double pumps, which work in conjunction with the horizontal carbonating cylinder, and with the separate vertical one as illustrated before. (Fig. 62.) "The drawing shows an arrangement for working two large pumps, but only one can be used if required. All our pumps for soda-water making are made with the ram plunger, and not the bucket plunger. It is most important with this class of work that the product of its manufacture should be beyond the possibility of contamination by metallic impurities. Every part has been subjected to most careful study in order to produce a thoroughly effective arrangement. The frames are of cast iron, connected together with four strong wrought-iron bolts; the fly-wheel is of sufficient diameter to give it the proper impetus, and runs perfectly true, being turned and polished on its outer rim; the crank is of the best forged iron, turned and fitted so that all parts run perfectly accurate; it has fast and loose pulleys, also an improved arrangement for throwing band on and off; the slings holding the plunger-frames are of wrought-iron; the pumps, valve-box, and plunger are made of a tongh long-grained metal to withstand pressure; the inside of pumps, valve-box, etc., is thickly coated with tin, each fitted with strong gun-metal cocks, for gas and water, and index plates with raised figures for regulating the supply. Two glazed stoneware solution pans are included, and each pump can be used for separate waters at the same time".

The next illustration shows another machine of the English plan with vertical cylinder and mechanical agitation. (Fig. 67.) This machine works in conjunction with an apparatus consisting of a separate generator and gasometer, and is especially adapted for large establishments where quick and effective work is required. The machine is also made with two cylinders. Those with one large cylinder are so arranged as to supply 4 to 6 bottling machines. With two large cylinders and two pumps this machine will make two distinct waters, which can be bottled at the same time from the one machine. The cylinders are made of copper, thickly lined with pure tin, having flanges by which the two halves are fastened together so that they are easily taken apart for cleansing or retinning; they have a water-gauge, dial-indicator, and safety-valve to each cylinder. The agitators are worked by spur wheels driven direct from the crank. It consists of a handsome massive cast-iron Gothic frame and a wrought-iron double-throw crank for working two large solid plunger-pumps; it is fitted with fast and loose pulleys and fly-wheel for steam-power; handles for manual labor are also supplied.

Fig. 66. Separate Double Pumps

Fig. 66. - Separate Double Pumps.

Fig. 67   Carbonating Machine with Single Cylinder

Fig. 67 - Carbonating Machine with Single Cylinder.

Carbonating machine with two cylinders and two pumps is shown next. The pumps are fitted with Foster's patent valves, so that either pump can be started or stopped momentarily, thus making a single machine of it without having to disconnect the slings.

The draw-off connections are at the top of cylinder, each having a screw-down cock for attaching to the pipes for three or more filling machines.

The gas work suitable for these machines comprises a separate generator, with acid box, and gun-metal connections and pipes, and a large gasometer, holding about 600 gallons, consisting of an oak tub, well coopered and bound with stout galvanized iron hoops, the bell of suitable size made of stout copper, tinned inside, with supporting ribs for strength.

Fig. 68.   Carbonating Machine with two Cylinders and two Pumps

Fig. 68. - Carbonating Machine with two Cylinders and two Pumps.

Vertical generator with horizontal agitator as supplied with large machines, is shown on next page. Where generators are required for large manufactories, it is advisable that a different system be adopted from that generally in use with small machines, as a much larger surface is required, and, consequently, a means for more readily and thoroughly mixing the ingredients for making the gas. In this generator the agitator or mixer has a horizontal action, and so more thoroughly divides and displaces the whiting, sulphuric acid, and water, a few turns of the handle being sufficient to incorporate one with the other.