This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
"Different sizes of this machine are made, consisting of the machine with latest improvements, fitted with water and pressure gauges, 12 safety-valve, pump with solid ram, and improved valve-box, etc. The gas plant consists of suitable size oak gasometer and copper bell, pipes, weights, uprights, etc. Generator made of thick lead, top flanged with bolts and nuts, fitted with strong gun-metal mixer, suitable inlet and outlet, also acid syphon box and pipe, including necessary pipes, connections and spanners ready for use, as shown above. Any kind of filling machine can be attached.
"The principle upon which the cylinder of this machine is con-structed is similar to that described at Fig. 63, the section of the cylinder showing how the gas and water are mixed or incorporated".
Fig. 62. - Separate Carbonating Cylinder.
Fig. 63. - Section of Fig. 62, showing Mode of Working.
This cylinder is to work in conjunction with separate pumps, when not attached to an apparatus.
"The water and gas are delivered from the pump to the cylinder through the connection A, which takes the form of a circular perforated tube E in the interior; thus the water and gas are delivered on all sides of the annular space in the upper half of the cylinder. As the pumping continues, the level of the water reaches the perforated plate D, fixed in the upper part of an inside dome. Then the liquid passes through the perforated plate D, falls through the body of the cylinder in the form of spray, and collects in the lower part of the cylinder, whence it is drawn off through the connection B to the bottling apparatus. The water-gauge shows the extent of the accumulated liquid ready for bottling. The tube C conveys gas pressure to the dial indicator and to the upper part of the water-gauge, and a tube through the perforated plate D ensures a constant equality of pressure in all parts of the interior of the cylinder. The jamb-cock F serves to empty the space in the upper part of the cylinder when necessary.
"This system of agitation in large cylinders has been subjected to practical trials, and has been found to produce a water highly charged with gas. The following advantages may be mentioned: it has no frictional parts to wear out; no noise; no gearing; no cup leathers to renew; no fans to break off; and it occupies less space than any other cylinder of equal capacity.
Fig. 64. - Carbonating Cylinders with Double Pumps.
"Where extra precaution is required, they can be silvered inside". The above illustration shows a set of vertical carbonating cylinders of the same kind with pumps attached. Fig. 64, "The pumps of these machines are of the solid "ram" type. Bucket plungers are not used by us, as they have the twofold disadvantages of causing an immense amount of metallic friction, and when worn the entire pump has to he re-bored at a considerable expense, and also the use of various sizes of bucket leathers, while with the solid plunger the leathers are self tightening, and the plunger does not require truing even after years of wear, but if so, at only a slight expense not to be worth consideration.
"These machines and pumps are tested to about double the pressure they are ever required to be worked. For filling syphons they can be worked at 200-lbs. pressure, but it is not necessary, as by this system the gas and water become thoroughly incorporated at a lower pressure; thus the breaking of bottles is materially lessened, and liability of accident therefrom reduced in proportion.
"The water being bottled in a quiescent state, there is no loss of syrup in bottling by the water being in a state of ebullition.
"Where only one description of mineral water is required to be bottled - as at many foreign mineral springs - the single cylinder machine is sufficient, but for an ordinary soda-water factory the machine with two cylinders is preferable, as by this sweet drinks can be bottled from the one, while mineral waters are being drawn from the other.
"Observe, when more than ordinary care is required in the manufacture, it is advisable to have the cylinders silvered inside, and to substitute the glass or silver-cased plunger for the gun-metal one.
"All the double pump machines are fitted with patent stopping valve, so that either pump can be thrown out of use in a moment without stopping the machine or disconnecting any gearing, and started again as quickly when required".
Another separate cylinder, but horizontal type with the mechanical agitation, and without pumps attached to it, working in conjunction with a, separate pump, is represented in Fig. 65, next page.
"To those preferring this style of cylinder (with the mechanical agitation), we beg to submit this as the most perfect one in the market, either for its general capabilities or design. These cylinders, being of recent design, have every modern improvement to render them perfect; the agitator runs perfectly true, and is supported on the outside in suitable bearings at each end; all metallic friction is exterior; the contents are drawn from the top with our high-pressure screw-down valves; the cylinder is supplied from the bottom by the two connections fitted into it, which has two stop-valves, so that should anything require looking to in the pumps or other parts it can be taken to pieces without having to empty it, as the valve closes of itself directly the pressure from behind is removed. The workmanship and materials are of the very highest quality. The copper cylinder is planished and polished bright, and every connection is of gun-metal, highly finished. All necessary connections are fitted, rendering it the most effective and handsome cylinder for the purpose yet designed. It is fully tested, and worked with all mountings, before leaving the factory.