This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
The draught arms or faucets, through which the beverage is discharged from the cooler into the tumbler, must be so constructed as to reduce the loss of gas by friction to a minimum. The outlets must be sufficiently large; all projections, rough surfaces and corners increase the loss of gas. The liquid should flow out in a close compact stream, and not like a hollow cylinder or in bell shape. The faucet, whether of brass or bronze, must be solid, tin-lined inside, while the exterior should be heavily silver-plated, to prevent any metallic poisoning.
A considerable loss of gas always occurs in drawing a carbonated liquid by the naturally rapid and violent discharge of the liquid under pressure, and the agitation of the water in the tumbler as the stream dashes swiftly into it. Various mechanical contrivances for obviating this difficulty have been devised with divided success. One way of meeting the difficulty is to use some kind of a nozzle as illustrated on page 399, a nozzle attached to a syphon head. A part of the flow rushes still at full speed through the hole, while some is checked in its swift escape.
Devices for drawing both water and syrup from the same faucet, and thus avoiding the necessity of moving the tumbler, have been invented, but they have been found too complicated for advantageous practical use.
Double-stream draught arms of various patterns are attached to the dispensing apparatus, and may be considered practical devices. Principally they consist of a draught arm with two separate faucets inside, one discharging a small swift stream to mix the syrup, and the other a larger and slower stream to fill the glass. These streams may be used either together or independently, as desired.
A foam condenser, as manufactured by the firm of John Matthews, and illustrated by the next figure, is another practical device for dispensing draught beverages.
This condenser enables root beer, ginger ale, and all similar beverages to be drawn in a steady, continuous stream, and prevents sputtering of the beverage when drawn. It can be readily attached to the ordinary draught arm of a dispensing apparatus, is simple in construction, and is easily taken apart for cleansing or repairing.
Fig. 335 is a neat device for the same purpose, manufactured by the A. D. Puffer & Sons' Mfg. Co., of Boston.
By this apparatus carbonated beverages of every description, and of whatever pressure, can be dispensed either in solid liquid or with any amount of foam desired. It is neat, ornamental, attractive, and can be attached to any draught apparatus.
The usual method of drawing foaming beverages at the dispensing fountain, where these illustrated contrivances are not employed, is by means of a metal beer measure, or pitcher, into which it is first drawn and allowed to stand for several seconds, giving the foam a chance to subside, and as the liquid is slowly decanted, the agitation or violent stirring, incident to the draught tube, is avoided.
Syrup tanks, cans or jars must answer the same requirements as those syrup receptacles described for carbo-nating apparatus. The most practical ones are the glass jars for the dispensing trade. Even pure block-tin cans are open to the objection that sugar in solution has a deleterious action upon tin, as already explicitly explained. Earthenware tanks serve very well, and do not injure the syrup, but glazed earthenware is suspicious, as frequently lead enters into the mixture. All the syrup vessels are best movable, and when empty should be taken out every day and carefully cleansed and scalded with hot water, to which some soda has been added, before refilling them. They are also placed inside the marble shell, in front or rear, as the arrangements permit. The illustration Fig. 331 shows the syrup can E in the rear. For each kind of syrup a separate can must be employed, so that quite a series of them enter into the dispensing apparatus. The devices, how these syrup cans are closed and the syrup dispensed, are also various.
Fig. 334 - Matthews' Foam Condenser.
Fig. 335. - Ridgeway's Patent Beer Fountain.
One device, as illustrated by Figure 336, consists of a rod of ebonite (hard rubber), with two rubber valves, the rod running vertically through the syrup can and measuring chamber, regulating the flow at the outlet, thus making an extra syrup faucet superfluous (Matthews' patent).
A is the syrup and B the measuring chamber. The ebonite rod C is furnished with a head E, and two rubber valves, D and F, for closing the admission and emission parts of the measuring chamber, respectively. The rod is provided with a vent G to the measuring chamber.
Where these glass tanks with rod are employed the syrup is discharged at the base of the dispensing apparatus, as illustrated by Fig. 337.
Fig. 336. - Portable Glass Syrup Tank and Rod.
. Others are set in connection with a separate syrup faucet as illustrated by Fig. 338. These syrup cans are closed either by ground plugs, as shown in this illustration, or by a valve at bottom, seen in Fig. 331, which connects or enters an annular seat or bearing, formed or deposited within a thimble or short tube secured to the bottom of the ice box which contains the syrup jars, and to which tube the faucet or its pipe is connected.
Fig. 337. - Sectional View of Portable Tank.
The syrup faucets require the most careful attention and scrutiny. The pipe connecting faucet and syrup can must be of the purest kind of block-tin, and the faucet itself must be thickly block-tin lined in the interior, and its exterior should be heavily silver-plated. Simplicity of construction is a principal point connected with syrup faucets; leaking and dripping leads to un-cleanliness, and is very disagreeable and inconvenient.
The construction of the syrup faucets can be readily seen by removing the handle and cap. The inside bearings should be occasionally oiled or greased with pure material, and care should be taken not to interchange the keys (Fig. 338), where each one is ground to its corresponding number. If there should be leakage, the keys have been interchanged. Examine the numbers stamped on the edge of the barrel and of the key and place them properly. If, however, the leakage is not caused in this way, unscrew the cap, take out the spring that holds the plug in position, and open it wider, so as to give the plug a greater pressure in the barrel. Before putting the plug in again, wipe it off carefully, and also wipe out that part of the barrel in which the plug works, as the slightest atom of grit or dirt between the plug and socket would cause leakage. If this does not make it tight, take two parts of mutton tallow to one part wax, and melt; dip the plug into this and put back into place immediately. (James W, Tuft's Book of Directions.)
Fig. 338. - Glass lined Syrup Tank with Faucet.
Fig. 339. - Syrup Faucet.
"Where rubber valves are to close the syrup cans, they might need new rubbers in case of leakage.
One of the plainest dispensing apparatus adapted for small dispensers, who do not care or cannot afford to buy complete dispensing apparatus, and prefer to keep their syrups in bottles and dispense from a simple draught column, is illustrated by the next figure.
This apparatus consists of a syphon, covered with a wire netting and provided with a metallic bottom, and a pipe passing down through the counter to a fountain below. The pipe is connected to a coil cooler in a metal-lined ice-filled cooling chamber secured to the under side of the counter, and the water is thereby cooled in its passage from the fountain to the syphon. The syphon head and all the piping and cooler must be of solid block-tin to answer the standard requirements The illustration is a pattern of the firm of John Matthews, New York.
Fig. 340. - Continuous Syphon.
Fig. 341. - Syrup Bottle.
Fig. 342. - Ice Plane.
Accessories to a dispensing apparatus are tumblers, tumbler holders and a tumbler washer, practically an ice plane, cream pitcher, etc. The choice of these accessories is generally considered a matter of individual taste. They should be kept well washed, rinsed and cooled. The tumbler holders should be silverware of ornamental design.