This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
This set consists of a copper generator, two copper cylinders, with injector pump and bottling machine. The arrangements are substantially the same as described for Tuft's "continuous apparatus of the American plan,' Fig. 168. The directions for operating apply equally to this apparatus.
Other styles are made without injecting pump, the purifiers being either on top of the fountains or at the side of the generator.
This generator, Fig. 195, is the largest style, and made of iron. The agitator is moved by power; on both ends pulleys are adjusted. The vitriol valve attachment is shown in cut. Two large separate purifiers are connected with the generator. This set is for a large establishment to charge portable fountains or separate stationary cylinders, as represented by the next illustration.
James W. Tufts, the manufacturer, gives the following directions for operating the apparatus, which are of general practical value, and therefore reprinted here:
1. To charge the generator. - "Close the discharge valves at bottoms of purifiers. Fill the purifiers three-fourths full of water, through the filling bungs, and close tightly by screwing the caps on filling bungs firmly with the wrench. If the purifiers are on the cylinders, or the generator has one on top, the prescribed amount of water should be used. Side purifiers require only about one half this quantity. Close the blow-off cock below the generator, and pour into the generator body, through the filling bung, the prescribed quantity of water. Mix thoroughly the requisite amount of soda and marble dust".
Tufts recommends the use of bicarbonate of soda in charging the generator, about one pound to every 12 pounds of marble dust, as it softens the mass and causes the gas to be generated more freely; besides rendering agitation easier, and facilitating the cleansing of the 19 generator after the cnarge is exhausted. In the absence of soda, the quantity of marble dust should be increased for the weight of the soda.
Fig. 193. - Matthews1 Detached Gas Washer.
"Having inserted the tin funnel in the filling bung, add the carbonate gradually to the water, turning the agitator as the mixture is supplied. The marble dust should always be sifted, to remove nails or other hard substances which might injure the lining. Wipe the marble dust from the top of filling bung and close tightly by means of cap and clamp; or if screw cap is used, carefully wipe marble dust from the screw thread of filling bung, and screw the cap tightly on with the wrench. Close the vitriol valve, by screwing down firmly. Do not use unnecessary force, as the valve and valve seat, both being of lead, may be injured. The valve is closed by turning to the right, as a screw is driven. Do not turn the valve the wrong way and imagine it is closed when it is wide open. Place the lead funnel in the filling bung and pour the prescribed quantity of sulphuric acid into the acid chamber. The acid should always be examined, as it frequently contains pieces of glass and particles of clay from the carboy, or other hard substances, which might ruin the acid valve seat. Tightly close the acid chamber by screwing the cap of filling bung on with the wrench. See that all the cocks and connections are tight, so that no gas can escape while generating. Try the safety valve and see that it works freely, which can be ascertained by brushing the fingers sharply down the projecting lever, causing the lever handle to fly back instantly. The generator is now ready for operation.
Fig. 194. - Tuft's Intermittent Apparatus with Injecting Pump.
2. Filling the Cylinders. - "The cylinders should be thoroughly cleansed by filling with water through the filling bungs. Agitato by turning the agitator wheel, and empty through the discharge bungs below. When emptying a cylinder, always remove the cap from the filling bung. Having returned the caps to the discharge bungs, and tightly closed them with the wrench, fill each cylinder three-fourths full of pure water, the colder the better, and close tightly by means of cap and clamp, or screw cap and wrench. The cylinders are now ready to be charged.
3. To charge the Water, using one Generator and one Cylinder, - "All cocks and connections being securely closed, open the inlet cock on the cylinder. Give the vitriol valve on the generator one half turn to the left (as a screw is withdrawn); let it remain in that position from twelve to fifteen seconds, or until the pressure gauge indicates about ten pounds, then close it firmly, but not with too much force. Now turn the generator agitator slowly until the indicator hand of the pressure gauge remains at a fixed point, which shows that the amount of vitriol let down has been exhausted, and made all the gas it is capable of. This operation must be repeated until the desired pressure (40 to 60 lbs. to the square inch, for bottling) is obtained. The cylinder agitator should now be turned briskly; this will cause the water to absorb the gas, and thus lessen the pressure in the generator. More gas must now be generated, by repeating the operation of letting down vitriol and agitating the contents of the generator. When the water in the cylinder has been thoroughly agitated, and will absorb no more gas, and the gauge indicates the desired pressure, the water in the cylinder is charged, and the outlet cock may be opened, to allow the charged water to pass to the bottling table. As the water is drawn off from the cylinder, the pressure should be maintained by occasionally generating more gas and allowing it to pass into the cylinder. When the water in the cylinder has been exhausted, close the cylinder inlet cock, and start the clamp on the cylinder filling plug, and remove the cap, to allow the pressure to escape. Refill the cylinder three-fourths full of water, close the filling plug and proceed to recharge. Repeat the operation as directed until the charge in the generator is exhausted. When the contents of the generator are exhausted, the gas should be allowed to escape slowly, by starting the clamp on the filling bung, until the pressure gauge indicates ten to fifteen pounds. Then open the blow-off cock, underneath the generator, gradually, and allow the spent charge to escape, turning the agitator constantly. Never blow off the generator suddenly, as there is danger of collapsing the lining. When the gauge indicates that all the pressure is gone, and while the exhausted charge is escaping, remove the cap from the filling bung, and pour water into the generator body, turning the agitator constantly, to facilitate cleansing the generator. When there is a pressure of water, it is well to use a hose with a small, bent nozzle, which can be inserted at the filling bung, and will throw the water into every part of the generator body. The generator should be thoroughly cleansed after each charge, as material allowed to remain will become hard and difficult to remove, and if allowed to accumulate, will eventually interfere with working the generator. The contents of the purifiers will generally be discharged by syphoning over into the generator body when the charge is blown off; but in all cases the purifier blow-off cocks should be opened, and whatever water remains discharged, and the purifiers refilled before the new charge is put into the generator. The acid chamber should be thoroughly cleansed by pouring water through the filling bung, and discharging into the generator body, by opening the vitriol valve.