Pastry is a stiff dough with a large proportion of shortening, and is flaky when baked rather than porous. Pastry and pies should not be used as a staple food, but when well made and properly masticated, pies may be eaten occasionally by people in good health. The crust should be flaky, and thoroughly baked.

Laboratory Management

Effective work in batters cannot be accomplished with less than 1/2 cup liquid, though a smaller portion is sometimes used. It is well to have some group work, so that the pupils may learn to beat larger quantities. If there is a school lunch room, large quantities may be utilized there.

II. Foundation recipes for pastry. 1. Proportions. (1) Plain crust.

This crust is more digestible and more economical than the "short" or rich crust and may be used for English deep apple pie, or meat or chicken pies.

Flour

Baking powder

Salt

Fat (butter or lard, or half of each) Ice water

2 cups

2 teaspoonfuls

1/2 teaspoonful

1/2 cup (measured solid) 1/4 cup

(2) Short crust. Flour Salt Fat (equal parts butter and lard) Ice water

2 cups

1/2 teaspoonful

2/3 cup 1/2 cup

(3) Rich flaky crust.

Same as (2) (more fat is to be added later)

2. Method of mixing for all

Have all the ingredients and utensils icy cold. Mix the dry ingredients and cut in the fat with two knives. Stir in the ice water until the dough will just hold together. Toss upon a floured board and roll to 1/4 inch or less in thickness. Roll this up. If not ready to be used, this pie crust may be covered with moist cheesecloth and put on the ice until wanted. This amount of crust will make two medium-sized pies with two crusts each.