Soup stock consists of the juices and soluble portions of meat or fish, bones and vegetables which have been extracted by long, slow cooking. The basis of stock may be beef, veal, mutton, fish, poultry, game, and vegetables. Proportions used should be 2/3 meat, 1/3 bone and 1 pint water to each 1 lb. meat.

All waste portions of meat and bone and bits of cold cooked meats that have not been charred in cooking can be utilized in making stock.

Vegetables and seasonings may be varied.

Soup vegetables include carrots, turnips, celery, onions, leeks, and parsley. For seasoning, the pot herbs (summer savory, thyme, and marjoram), the bay leaf, cloves, peppercorns, salt, and pepper are used in soup. Tomatoes can be combined with brown stock to add flavor.

Rules to be Remembered in Making Stock

1 Cut the meat up fine and put in cold water, for 1/2 to 1 hour.

2 Heat to boiling point and then simmer slowly 5 to 7 hours.

3 Add no starchy substance if stock is to be kept for some time.

4 When cooked, strain and cool quickly, leaving stock uncovered until cold.

5 The fat should not be removed from stock or broths that are to be kept, as when cold it will form a thin covering over the stock excluding air and preventing decomposition. It should be entirely removed before reheating stock or broth, and should be reserved to be used in place of drippings. Small globules of fat may be removed from cold stock by skimming with a cloth, which has been dipped in boiling water, then wrung dry. Fat may be removed from hot broth by using tissue paper or a piece of bread.

6 The meat which remains after straining the stock may be used in any recipe which calls for cold cooked meat - such as minced meat, croquettes, etc.

Brown soup stock is prepared from beef, and the best results are obtained by browning a portion of the meat or by using cold cooked meat that is browned. It is usually seasoned with vegetables, spices, and herbs.

White Soup Stock is prepared from veal, turkey, chicken, or rabbit, delicately seasoned.

Soup stock which is prepared from mutton is used only in special recipes and should not be combined with that from other meats.

Bouillon is made from lean beef, delicately seasoned and clear.

Consomme is made from two or three kinds of meat - beef; veal, or fowl, and usually cleared. Broth is uncleared soup stock.

Beef Stock or Brown Stock

4 lb. meat and bone 2 quarts cold water

Cut meat in small pieces, crack the bone and soak 1 hour in cold water, then cook at a low temperature for 5 hours. (Add vegetables if desired, then cook 2 hours longer.) Strain, chill quickly. Skim off fat before using. Serves 6.

The trimmings and bones of fresh meats or bones and pieces from roasts may be cut into small pieces and used for stock, but no smoked or charred pieces of meat or bone should be used. Stock may be used for soups, gravies, and sauces. Dark caramel may be added to give a rich color.

Beef stock is the foundation of all dark meat soups and is seasoned as desired with vegetables, cereals, or other flavors.