1. Avoid eating undercooked cereals.

2. Have cooked cereal stiff enough to be chewed. If too soft, it is swallowed without being mixed with saliva.

3. Sugar, a carbohydrate, is not needed with cereals; milk and cream, on the other hand, supply fat and other foodstuffs of which cereals have little.

1 Rice naturally has a brownish skin containing protein and mineral matter, but by "polishing" this skin is removed. Except for people who live chiefly on rice this loss is not serious. Polished rice is often coated with talc or glucose. So-called "unpolished rice" is often merely uncoated, not unpolished, but natural brown rice (unpolished) can be obtained from certain dealers.

Table Showing Time Of Cooking, And Proportions Of Salt And Water, For Breakfast Cereals

Kind

Tea spoon fuls of

Salt to one cup ful of cereal

Cupfuls oF

Water to One Cupful oF Cereal

Method of Cooking

Time oF Cooking, in Hours

Oatmeal (Raw) . . .

1

4

Steam.

If soaked, 3; if not, 6 or more.

Oatmeal (Steam-cooked), Rolled Oats, H-O, etc.....

1

1 3/4 or 2

Steam.

1 or more.

Rice ...........................................

3

8 or more.

Boil.

1/2

Rice.......

1

2 1/2

Steam.

1

Wheat (Rolled and Steam-cooked) . .

1

1 1/4

Steam.

1

Indian Meal ....

1

61

Boil.

If soaked, 3; if not, 6.

Hominy ..................................

1

4

Steam.

If soaked, 2; if not, 4.

Wheaten Grits . . .

1

3 (or if soaked over night in 1 cup of cold water, add 2 1/2 cups of boiling water).

Steam.

If soaked, 2; if not, 3.

Farina and other fine wheat preparations .

1

4

Steam.

1 to 3

1 If the meal is sprinkled in dry, continue adding it until it begins to float; after that, add no more.

Maize, commonly called corn, is native to America.

Immense crops of it are raised in the middle West every year. It probably yields more products than any other cereal. Among these are meal, flour, starch, syrup, and oil. White and yellow corn-meal are equally nutritious, and if well-cooked, quite digestible. Adding wheat flour makes cornbread lighter.

Brief Reference List

For further development of topics treated in this section see: -

Ward : Grocer's encyclopedia. (Article on cereals and articles on the different cereals.) Earle : Home life in colonial days. Ch. 6, Indian corn. Wiley : Foods and their adulteration. Pp. 217-272. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture : Farmers' Bulletins: 298. Food value of corn and corn-products; 249. Cereal breakfast foods; 559. Use of corn, kaffir, and cow-peas in the home; 565. Cornmeal as a food and ways of using it. Michigan Experiment Station: Bulletin 211. Breakfast foods. Jordan : Human nutrition. P. 304, Breakfast foods. Cornell University : Cornell reading course. V. 3, pp. 86-103, Rice and rice cookery. Sherman : Food products. Ch. 8, Grain products.