Trees with tap-roots are much more difficult to transplant than those of the other variety, and a different course should be pursued in the operation if we would ensure success. To remove the oak or pine, a deep hole should be dug round the tree, and as near as possible the whole of the tap should be taken up, and the tree transplanted to a hole as deep and as large as the one from which it was taken. But in removing the mulberry, we only need to cut off the surface roots, at some distance from the stem, and turn up the roots and remove the tree to a broad, shallow hole, and the whole is accomplished that is demanded by the nature of the roots. To transplant them with intelligence, we should know with what kind of roots we have to deal. The relation of leaves to roots determine the appropriate time for transplanting. Those plants that have active leaves, like all deciduous land plants, can only be transplanted during the season of rest, or before the leaves are expanded in Spring, as the leaves exhaust all the sap at once when the roots are severed.

On the other hand, those trees, like all the cone and fir tribes, can but be moved when the plant is in activity, as it is then full of sap and immediately puts forth new roots - the leaves not exhausting the supply of sap.

In planting and making crops, these facts have important applications. Corn is most emphatically a surface feeder, and cotton is a deep feeder. The tendency of corn roots is upward, all new roots in the corn are above the old ones. Those roots that afford it nourishment, that ripens the corn, are the most superficial roots. The roots under the stalk, or first roots, are dead. Cotton is the reverse. The newest roots are the deepest. They are developed downwards, if they meet with no physical obstruction. These facts teach us that in planting corn, the seed should be deposited at least as low as the ground surface of the soil or land, that the roots may spread out naturally. Cotton, on the other hand, may perhaps be planted on ridges, or elevated beds, as its tendency is all downwards; it gets more depth by this arrangement. It teaches us the advantage of deep ploughing, for cotton especially, although corn even will be benefited under ordinary circumstances by the same process, although it does not require it if it can be supplied with food and moisture without. The fullest product may be obtained from corn when it is planted on an impervious slate, provided the other conditions are fulfilled. Cultivation should evidently be modified by these different tendencies of roots.

It is evident that deep working in corn must be injurious, and it is equally evident that close ploughing, after the plant is well grown, must do harm, by severing the new roots intended to perfect the grain. Neither of these things may be regarded in the cultivation of cotton. Deep and close ploughing may be useful to cotton, if the first ploughing before planting was much deeper. We may modify the development of roots by management, especially in corn. It is a principle in the vegetable kingdom that if you destroy one organ in any place, greater development will take place in the second organ in another. So if you cut off one root, more will issue in another place. Now, corn is readily affected by drought, because its roots are naturally superficial. To diminish this superficial tendency, these upper fibres may be removed by hoeing and ploughing, and deeper fibres will be developed. If this is done while the plant is vigorous and in the earlier stage of its growth and continuously, the corn will seek its nourishment much deeper than is natural for it, and hence when drought comes, the source of supply is not so readily affected as when no such management has been practiced.

We are taught also the benefit of observing the soil around the corn stalk and the uselessness of it in cotton. By hilling up the corn, we supply nourishment to the latest and newest formed roots, provided the soil is taken from beyond the sphere of the older roots. Corn also wants area, as its roots are all lateral, and hence suffers greatly by being too thick. The same is true of all kinds of grain.

In watering plants in our gardens, it should not be applied indiscriminately, regardless of the kind of roots we have to deal with. The water for vines, as strawberries, melons, cucumbers, should never be applied to the main stem, but a distance from it, for the mouths are there for drinking it in; but in the radish, beet, rhubarb, etc, it should be applied directly to the main root, that it may go down the root to the mouths beneath.

Advantage may be taken of this distinction of roots in planting or sowing two kinds of vegetables together. This has long been practiced in regard to herds grass and clover, the former a surface feeder and the latter a deep feeder. . It would be interesting to know how this practice originated, whether from reason or an empirical result. The fact has been known, probably, for centuries, although we have never seen a reason for the beneficial results. It is well known that this practice yields a vastly increased product, and the reason, from the facts stated, is evident. The herds grass feeds as though there were no clover, and the clover feeds as if there were no grass.

In the cultivation of fruit trees, these principles are of high practical interest The nurseryman understands that he can, in some measure, convert the tap-rooted fruit trees into the forciculated. He accomplishes by this result two objects. One, that his trees will live more certainly when sold. Another, those trees that remain unsold, are kept in a dwarf condition for several years and are fit for sale, which otherwise would become too large. He attains this end by catting off the tap-root, by means of a sharp instrument thrust under the tree. The tree thus used lives, it is true, but its main root is gone and will never be reproduced. The tree, that nature formed with a strong main root that it might withstand the force of storms and have unharmed its burden of fruit, is mutilated and deprived of its characteristic and essential organ, which by art is replaced by one in no wise fitted for its condition. Who has not experienced this evil resulting from such a practice, that has ever raised a fruit tree? They must be staked or propped up, or they soon stand obliquely or fall down under the weight of fruit. The same course should be pursued in transplanting a fruit tree as in transplanting an oak or pine.

We should dig down below the roots, and gather the main root and as many of its branches as possible, and then set it in a deep hole; broad, if you choose, but deep anyhow. This principle teaches us, also, the earlier fruit trees are set in the places in which they are to grow, the better. If the ground were prepared, and the seed, for the stocks, were planted where the trees were to grow, and grafted or budded, in their natural positions, there would be no falling down or leaning trees, if cared for during the first year or two, and we should have fruit orchards for a generation. The practice now pursued, with a rich surface soil, and only surface roots, the tree out of the ground, is pushed forward far beyond any means of support developed under ground. The two should correspond, and let nature have her own way and she will make them do so.

In the rotation of crops, in field or garden culture, regard should be had to the kind of roots that succeed each other. The tap-rooted should always succeed the forciculated after fresh manuring. Succeed onions by beets or turnips in the garden; Irish potatoes or beans, by cabbages, parsnips, or carrots.

In the above remarks I do not know but I may have come in conflict with plantation practice in some particulars, but that the principles are correct, there is no doubt, as my experiments, on a small scale, have abundantly proved; and had space permitted, I should have been pleased to have recorded experiments on this subject, especially in the growth of corn and cotton.

In all cases it is presumed that the soil is perfectly broken up, that the whole storehouse of materials is opened to the application of the plant; otherwise the conditions of successful cultivation, of any crop, are not complied with. - Cotton Planter and Soil.