Some good varieties of Clematis are described in Chapter 18. The shrub-lover may well be excused if he feels embarrassed by the multitude of riches when he surveys this important genus, for in addition to the richly coloured hybrids and garden varieties there are many beautiful species. The problem will probably be solved by the space available for supporting the plants. Where there are pergolas, arbours, arches, summer-houses and other erections on the place, accommodation can be found for a good collection. A great effort will be made to find room for C. montana and its red form rubens; and by those who love novelties for montana Wilsoni, which has larger white flowers than the species and blooms several weeks later. Rubens will flower when only a foot high, and is charming for covering a stump or old tree. Flammula, the Virgin's Bower, is both pretty and sweet; there is a garden form of this called rubromarginata, the creamy flowers of which are edged with red. Of the other species, aethusifolia, with small linear, much-lobed leaves and small white bell-shaped flowers in late summer; alpina (Atragene austriaca), light blue; calycina, cream; coccinia, scarlet; cirrhosa, white, evergreen; crispa, lilac; grata, bluish white, blooms in autumn; graveolens, yellow; orientalis, white, sweet, and its variety tanghutica, golden yellow (flowers in spring on previous year's wood); and paniculata, white, sweet, an autumn bloomer, will evoke admiration.

Vitalba is that beautiful wilding the Traveller's Joy, the feathery white achenes of which cloud the tall hedges in autumn. Coccinea is represented in many gardens by hybrid forms such as Countess of Onslow, violet; Duchess of Albany,. pink; Duchess of York, blush; Grace Darling, rosy carmine; and Sir Trevor Lawrence, crimson. These are quite distinct in form from the majority of Clematises, having tubular urn-shaped flowers. Florida, white, a September bloomer; lanuginosa, blue, early summer; Viticella, blue, summer; and patens, white, early summer, are not much grown as species, but are represented in gardens by their hybrids, some of which are described in Chapter 18. These differ in their flowering habit, and consequently the notes on pruning in Chapter 13. should be carefully followed. Davidiana, a form of heracleaefolia with blue flowers in summer, is herbaceous; and so is recta (syn. erecta) with white flowers in summer. Indivisa and its beautiful variety lobata are shrubs, but are not hardy enough to be grown out of doors.

The Clematises are not very particular as to soil, but they do not care for damp, stiff ground, nor for poor dry soil. Heavy soil should be drained and made friable. Light soil should be liberally manured. Plants can be bought in pots at almost any time, but it is not desirable to plant in hot weather, unless the plants can be shaded and watered till established. It is wise to cut Jackmanii and its forms hard back after planting, so as to encourage them to throw up strong shoots from the base. This fine hybrid and its varieties never give better results than when pruned hard back late in spring every year. The new shoots thus encouraged bloom much better than the old. It is the same with the Viticella varieties. But such treatment would not do for florida, montana, lanuginosa, patens and their varieties. For modern Clematises see the chapter on new plants.