Bones Above The Clavicles

There are nine bones in the Grivá (neck); four in the Kantha-nádi * (wind-pipe); two in the Hanu (Jaws). The teeth number thirty-two. There are three bones in the nose; one in the Tálu (palate); also one in each Karna (ear), Sankha (temple), and Ganda (check), (thus making six in all); six bones form the Sirá (cranium). [Thus making sixty-three in all]. 20.

Different Kinds Of Bones And Their Situations

These bones may be divided into five classes (according to their character), such as the Kapála, Ruchaka, Taruna, Valaya and the Nalaka. The bones, situated in the knee-joints, shoulders (Ansa †), hips (Nitamvas), cheeks (Ganda) palate, temples, and the cranium belong to the Kapála kind (flat bones). The teeth belong to the Ruchaka class. The bones in the nose, ears, throat (trachea) and the socket of the eyes (Akshi-kosha†) are called Tarima (cartilages); while those which are found in the palm (wrist), foot (ankle), sides back, chest and regions of the abdomen, belong to the Valaya (irregular or curved) class. The remaining bones belong to Nalaka class (long-bones, lit. - reed-like or cylindrical). 21.

* Tala, Kurcha, and Kantha-nádi are identical with Charak's Sálaká, Sthána and Jatru respectively.

† Though it is asserted here that there exist Taruna bones in the sockets of the eyes (Akshi-kosha) but there is no mention at all in the text, of the presence of any such therein. There is no mention of the shoulder-blade (Ansa) here though it is a part of the skeleton.

Memorable Verses

As trees are supported by the hard core inside their trunks, so the body is supported (and kept erect) by the firm bones (which are found in its inside). And since these bones form the pith (Sára) of the human organism, they are not destroyed even after the destruction and falling off of the attached flesh, skin, etc. of the body. Muscles are attached strongly to the bones by means of the veins (Sirás) and ligaments (Snáyus), and are thus kept in position and do not fall off. 22.

The Sandhis Or Joints-(M. T.)

The joints may be divided into two kinds according as they are immovable (synarthrosis) and movable (diar-throsis). Those which are situated at the four extremities as well as in the Kati (waist) and Hanus (jaws) are movable; the others are known to be unmovable by the learned. There are two hundred and ten articulations (Sandhis) in the human body. Of these sixty-eight are in the four extremities; fifty-nine in the trunk (Koshtha); and eighty-three in the neck and in the region above it. 23.

Sandhis Of The Four Extremities

Three joints are found in each toe, two only in the great toe, thus making fourteen in each leg; one is placed in each ankle, knee-joint and groin, thus making seventeen Sandhis in each leg or thirty-four in the two lower extremities. A similar number is to be found in each of the two upper extremities. 24-25.