Eucalyptus globulus, Labillardiere. The dried scythe-shaped leaf, with not more than 3 p.c. of of stems, fruits, or other foreign organic matter.

Habitat. Australia (Tasmania, Victoria); cultivated in subtropics, Europe, N. Africa, S. United States (California, Florida, etc.); rich valleys, moist slopes of wooded hills.

Syn. Eucalypt, Blue Gum Leaves, Gum Tree (Wood); Fever Tree of Australia, Blue Gum-tree, Woolly Butt, Iron Bark Tree; Fr. Feuilles d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eucalyptus- blatter.

Eu-ca-lyp'tus. L. fr. Gr. eb, well, good, + ..., covered -- i.e., the calyx-limb covers the flower bud before expansion and afterward, at anthesis, falls off in the shape of a lid or cover -- the outer operculum of the bud (not the inner of united petals).

Glob'u-lus. L. globulus, globulosus, a little ball, globular -- i.e., the thick button-like form of the fruit.

Plant

Rapid-growing tree, 60-90 M. (200-300 degrees) high, 3-6 M. (10-20 degrees) thick (the largest being 141 M. (470 degrees) high, 27 M. (87 degrees) in circumference -- E. amygdalina); bark ash-color; flowers Nov.-Dec., hermaphrodite, pedunculate, pinkish-white, buds very glaucous, consisting of calyx-tube covered by conical lid (perculum) of calyx-limb and united petals, fruit capsules, 18 Mm. (3/4') broad half-globular, 4-5-ribbed, dehiscing at apex, many-seeded. LEAVES (LEAF) -- Blades lanceolate, curved, 8-30 Cm. (3-12') long, 2-7.5 Cm. (4/5-3') broad, acute, base unequal, rounded; petiole twisted, 5-35 Mm. (1/5-1 2/5') long; margin uneven, revolute, coriaceous, both surfaces pale yellowish-green, glaucous, glandular-punctate, numerous small circular brown dots of cork; veins of the first order anastomosing to form a vein nearly parallel with margin; stomata deeply depressed (level or elevated in spurious leaves); odor aromatic, taste aromatic, bitter, cooling.

Powder

light green -- fragments of epidermis with stomata nearly invisible, chlorenchyma with broken oil reservoirs, brownish cork, bast-fibers, tracheae, calcium oxalate in rosette aggregates. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water. Dose, gr 15-60 (1-4 Gm.)

Adulterations

Leaves

Various leaves having stomata level with leaf-surface, not deeply depressed as in genuine;

Powder

Should not reveal epidermal fragments with guard-cells of stomata visible upon vertical view, nor should any fragments, without stomata, exhibit wavy epidermal cells upon certical view; OIL: Oils of various species of Eucalyptus containing much phellandrene, castor oil 12-20 p.c.

Commercial

The blue-gum tree of Tasmania (exuding blue-gum), discovered by Labillaradiere, French botanist, 1792, and introduced into Europe, 1856, is sensitive to cold, but under favorable conditions attains the height of 15 M. (50 degrees) in 6 years; there are 135 species, the wood of many being hard, resinous and valuable. The aborigines knew something of its virtues, while the Spaniards used it for fever and ague, 1867, but Drs. Brunel and Ramel extolled and proved its antiperiodic properties, 1868-1869. Leaves are picked, dried carefully, and enter trade very little broken, those that are ovate, equilateral, thin and sessile, "junior," being rejected; only the Australian variety should be used, as they vary less in the yield of oil; however, most of our supply comes from California.

Constituents

Volatile oil 6 p.c., tannin, cerylic alcohol, 3 resins (1 acid, crystallizable), eucalyptic acid.

Oleum Eucalypti. Oil of Eucalyptus, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Eucalypt., Eucalyptus Oil; Fr. Essence d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eukalyptusol.) This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh leaves (old leaves containing very little oil) of this and other species, is a neutral, colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic, aromatic, somewhat little camphoraceous odor, pungent, spicy, cooling taste, soluble in 4 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.915, dextrorotatory; congeals at not below -15.4 degrees C. (4 degrees F.); contains at least 70 p.c. of eucalyptol (cineol), CHO, 20 p.c. of cymene, CH, eudesmol, CHO, phellandrene, CH, eucalyptene, CH, terpene -- d-pinene (small amount), CH, also a little valeric, butyric and capronic aldehydes; with hydrochloric acid yields eucalypteol (eucalyptene hydrochloride), CH.2HCl, in white hygroscopic, aromatic crystals; with phosphoric oxide yields eucalyptolene, thickish liquid. Tests: 1. Mix oil (2) with glacial acetic acid (4), add 20 p.c. aqueous solution of sodium nitrite (3), stir gently--no crystals of phellandrene nitrite (abs. of other eucalyptus oils containing much phellandrene). Impurities: Castor oil 12-20 p.c., etc. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).

Eucalyptol. Eucalyptol, CHO, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Cineol, Cajuputol; Fr. Eucalyptol, Oxyde de Terpilene; Ger. Eucalyptolum, Eukalyptol, Zineol.) This substance obtained from oil of eucalyptus and other sources (cajuput, canella, curcuma, laurus, mentha, rosemary, salvia, santonica) is the most valuable constituent of eucalyptus oil, being neutral and with a definite chemical composition, which is not true of the oil, and may be obtained by distilling the volatile oil and placing in a freezing mixture that portion coming over between 150-176 degrees C. (302-347 degrees F.), from which it crystallizes in long, colorless needles; a more satisfactory method is to treat the oil with hydrochloric acid gas or phosphoric acid, add warm water to separate eucalyptol on the surface, then wash with dilute alkali solution and distil. It is a colorless liquid, characteristic, aromatic, distinctly camphoraceous odor, pungent, spicy taste; slightly soluble in water, miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, sp gr. 0.922, boils at 176 degrees C. (349 degrees F.), congeals at 0 degrees C. (32 degrees F.). Tests: 1. Optically inactive (dist. from oil of eucalyptus, many other volatile oils); alcoholic solution (1 in 10) -- neutral. 2. Place 1 cc. in freezing mixture, add gradually phosphoric acid (1) -- solid, white, crystalline mass (eucalyptol-phosphoric acid), + warm water -- eucalyptol separates. 3. Shake 5 cc. with sodium hydroxide T.S. (5) -- eucalyptol volume not diminished (abs. of phenols, etc.). 4. Shake 1 cc. with distilled water (20), after liquids separate, add to aqueous layer 1 drop ferric chloride T.S. -- no violet color (abs. of phenols). Impurities: Oil of eucalyptus, volatile oils, saponifiable oils, phenols. Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).

Preparations

Leaves

1.Fluidextractum Eucalypti. Fluidextract of Eucalyptus. (Syn., Fldext. Eucalypt., Fluid Extract of Eucalyptus; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eucalyptusfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture

Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae, page 126; menstruum; 75 p.c. alcohol, reserve first 80 cc. Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.). OIL: 1. Curatio Parafinni, N.F., 2 p.c. EUCALYPTOL: 1. Nebula Eucalyptolis, N.F., 5 p.c., + light-liquid petrolatum 95. 2. Petroxolinum Eucalyptolis, N.F., 20 cc. In 100 cc. product. 3. Liquor Antisepticus, N.F., p.c. 4. Liquor Aromaticus Alkalinus, N.F., 1/10 p.c. 5. Liquor Pepsini Antisepticus, N.F., 1/20 p.c. 6. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 7. Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 8. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum Compositum, N.F., 3 cc. In 100 cc. product. 9. Pulvis Antisepticus, N.F., 1-10 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: LEAVES: Extract, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.). Infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.). Tincture, 15 p.c., 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.). OIL: Unguentum Eucalypti (Br.), 10 p.c. Water (Aqua), 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).

Properties

Antiperiodic, antipyretic, expectorant, stimulant, astringent, antiseptic, disinfectant, diaphoretic; like quinine arrests white blood corpuscle movement; increases flow of saliva, gastric juice, heart action, appetite, digestion; large doses produce indigestion, diarrhea, vomiting, muscular weakness, low temperature, renal and cerebral congestion, paralyzed respiration, death; destroys low forms of life, reduces arterial tension and enlarged spleen. It antagonizes malaria thus: 1, its dead leaves elevate the low moist soil; 2, being a rapid grower, its leaves roots, etc., absorb much malarial soil-water and noxious germs, thus causing the surrounding country to become dry, thereby purifying the atmosphere; 3, its enormous foliage protects large areas from direct sun-rays which favor the generation of animalculae; 4, its aseptic emanations purify the air. Owing to these properties it is cultivated largely in malarial districts, to render them sanitative, and to reclaim infected localities, as portions of Australia, Jamaica, Roman Campagna, etc. It is eliminated by skin, bronchia, kidneys, lungs, with more or less irritation, imparting odor to breath and urine.

Uses

Intermittent fever, genito-urinary and pulmonary catarrh, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane affections, asthma (smoked with stramonium). Used when quinine is contra-indicated, intermittents, typhoid, scarlatina, whooping-cough, cancer, hemorrhages; externally--as antiseptic in ulcers, gonorrhea, spongy gums, gleet, deodorizer in diseases with disagreeable odor, preventive of putrefaction; spray beneficial in diphtheria, gangrene of lungs, fetid bronchitis. Tincture (1) added to cod-liver oil (100) removes fishy flavor; the leaves deter moths entering woolen cloth; bark used for tanning, dyeing.

Incompatibles

Agents aiding waste, alkalies, mineral acids, salts.

Synergists

Aromatic bitters, antispasmodics, copaiba, cubeb, oil of turpentine, etc.

Bosisto found the yield of volatile oil from 100 pounds (45.5 Kg.) of leaves from each of the several species to vary considerably: E. globulus -- 12 ounces (.3 L.), the only one having eucalyptol to an appreciable extent, E. Amygdali'na, Peppermint Tree -- 50 ounces (1.5 L.); E. Dumo'sa--30 ounces (.9 L.); E. obli'qua, Stringy-bark Tree -- 8 ounces (.2 L.); E. Leucox'ylon (Siderox'ylon, Iron-bark Tree -- 16 ounces (.5 L.); E. Oleo'sa, Mallee Tree -- 20 ounces .6 L.).

Allied Plants

1. Eucalyptus rostra'ta; Eucalyptus Gummi, Eucalyptus Gum (Kino), Red Gum, N.F. -- A dried gummy exudation from the bark of this and other species; Australia. Many species (50), all large trees, yield this product from cavities and hand-made incisions, when it is dried by artificial heat -- the yield per tree about the same as of ordinary kino. It is in reddish-brown grains, angular masses, in thin layers transparent ruby-red; brittle, forming plastic mass adhering to teeth when chewed, coloring saliva red; odor slight, taste very astringent. Powder, dark reddish-brown -- angular fragments with conchoidal fracture, thinner pieces yellowish-brown; aqueous solution faintly acid, reddish--intensified by an alkali; diluted solution + ferric chloride T.S. -- dark green color, more concentrated -- dark green precipitate; almost completely soluble in alcohol without becoming plastic; 80-90 p.c. soluble in water, solubility lessens with age; contains kino-tannic acid 45-50 p.c., kino-red, catechin, pyrocatechin, volatile oil, ash 2 p.c. Properties and Uses: similar to kino. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); 1. Trochisci Eucalypti Gummi, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.), + tragacanth 1 gr., acacia 2 gr., sucrose 6 gr., oil of orange 1/20 m., fldext, rose m.