Pterocarpus santalinus, Linne filius. The heart-wood.

Habitat. Madras; cultivated in S. India, Ceylon, Philippines.

Syn. Santal. Rub.; Red Santal, Chandam, Chundana, Ruby Wood; Br. Pterocarpi Lignum, Red Saunders (Sandal) Wood; Fr. Santa Rouge; Ger. Rothes Sandeholz.

Pter-o-car'pus. L. from Gr.... wing, + ... fruit -- i.e., its winged fruit pods or legumes girdled with a broad crisped wing.

San-ta-li'nus. L. adj. form fr. Sandal, Pers. sandal, useful; Gr. .

San'ta-lum. L. noun form; sandalwood, saunders.

Ru-brum. L. ruber, red, ruddy -- i.e., the color of the wood.

Plant

Tree 6-9 M. (20-30 degrees) high, .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, some trunks hollow; leaves trifoliate; leaflets broadly oval, emarginate, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, hoary beneath; flowers yellow, papilionaceous corolla, spikes; fruit orbicular legume, wing slightly crisped, 2-seeded. HEART-WOOD, in billets, logs, 1-1.6 M. (3-5 degrees) long, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') thick, deprived of light-colored sap-wood, hard, heavy, dark reddish-brown, splitting coarse-splintery; usually in coarse powder, purplish to brownish-red, nearly odorless and tasteless.

Powder

reddish-brown -- numerous wood-fibers of irregular outline and sharp pointed ends, occasionally forked, lumina filled with fine, granular protoplasmic content, occasional tracheae filled with yellow, resinous masses, medullary rays 1 cell wide, 3-6 deep, crystal-fibers with prisms of calcium oxalate; mounts in chloral hydrate T.S. -- deep, rich red color. Tests: 1. Mix .5 Gm. with ether 10 cc. -- solution orange-yellow, with greenish fluorescence in bright light; .5 Gm. with alcohol 10 cc. -- solution distinctly red. 2. Mix .5 Gm. with water 10 cc. -- liquid clear and colorless. Solvents: alcohol; ether; acetic acid; alkaline solutions; boiling water or diluted alcohol partially.

Preparation

1. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1 p.c.

Constituents

Santalin .25-.5 p.c., Santal, Pterocarpin, Homopterocarpin.

Santalin (santalic acid), CHO. -- Coloring matter, obtained by precipitating alcoholic tincture with lead acetate, washing precipitate with hot alcohol, decomposing it with hydrogen sulphide in the presence of alcohol, evaporating; occurs in red needles, inodorous, tasteless, resinous, soluble in alcohol (blood-red), ether (yellow), sulphuric acid (deep red), alkalies (violet), also in oils of clove, cinnamon, bergamot, bitter almond.

Santal, CHO, Pterocarpin, CHO, Homopterocarpin, CHO-- All occur in colorless scales -- the latter soluble in carbon disulphide and when fused with potassium hydroxide yields phloroglucin.

Uses

Red Saunders has no important medicinal properties, being used only for imparting color.  Employed natively as an astringent and with sapan wood for dyeing silk, cotton, wool, giving various reds according to mordants used.