This section is from the book "A Practitioner's Handbook Of Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Thos. S. Blair. Also available from Amazon: A Practitioner's handbook of Materia Medica and Therapeutics.
Acetanilid, in proper doses, is rapidly eliminated, but retards nitrogenous tissue waste. Not directly influencing the circulatory apparatus, yet it inhibits heat production. and so indirectly depresses respiration and circulation. Its long-continued administration favors the production of methemoglobin, and ultimately may cause degenerative tissue changes. It is antipyretic, analgesic, and antiseptic. Its administration should be guarded, and stimulants, such as caffeine, may be advantageously combined with it.
Dose, 3 to 10 grains. Avoid large doses in fever, and do not use in anemic headache. It may be used in 1 to 500 solution as a preservative of hypodermic solutions. The proprietary admixtures of this drug are in no manner superior to the Pulvis acetanilide compositus of the U.S.P. (acetanilide, 70%; caffeine, 10%; sodium bicarb, 20%. Dose, 3 to 15 gr.).
Acetous Tinctures have been frequently urged upon the profession. The U.S.P. gives official sanction to Acetum opii, a 10%, the average dose of which is 8 I and a similar preparation of squill, the average dose of which is 15 I.
An old eclectic "acetous tincture of bloodroot and lobelia" is still somewhat in use, and is a most eligible remedy in croup and tight coughs. Dose, 10 to 60 I. The U.S.P. recognizes acetic fluidextracts of lobelia, Sanguinaria, and squill.
Acid, arsenous. See under heading of Arseni trioxidum. Acidum Benzoicum, in doses of 10 to 30 gr., is antipyretic and antilithic, but is too stimulating to the brain to be administered for long periods. Doses of 10 or 15 grains are of advantage in the irritation of the sympathetic and spinal nerves caused by an excess of uric acid. Long-continued administration sometimes gives rise to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This acid acts by reason of its conversion into hippuric acid, thus rendering the urine acid. When the normal acidity is reached during the administration of benzoic acid for its antilithic influence, it is proper to reduce the dose. With due precautions the full physiologic action can be induced with safety. Sodium benzoate has a similar action. Naturally, conditions of urinary incontinence, urethral irritation, and cystitis, caused either by alkalinity or by phosphatic deposits, are markedly benefited by its administration. It also reduces the acidity of uric-acid urine.
In small doses it is expectorant, useful in chronic coughs, and the cough of women in which urine dribbles away during the paroxysms. Dissolve Ki in alcohol fKii and administer in 3 to 20 drop doses. Small amounts of this acid can be advantageously ingested by the free use of prunes, which contain it.