Formula

C7H602= C6H5 - CO,OH.

Derivation

Benzoic acid is obtained from benzoin (a balsamic resin, which exudes from the incised stem of a tree of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Siam), either by sublimation or by the action of alkalies; it is also made from hippuric acid. It is in the form of white, feathery crystals, of a silky lustre, a peculiar, agreeable odor, and warm, acidulous taste. While it is sparingly soluble in cold water, it is more soluble in warm or boiling water, and very soluble in alcohol, solutions of potassa, soda, ammonia, lime and concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. The fixed oils also dissolve it. From solution it crystallizes in transparent prisms. It is also inflammable.

Medical Properties And Action

Benzoic acid is stimulant, particularly of mucous surfaces, and its vapor causes great irritation of the air passages. It is also antiseptic and expectorant, and some claim that it is a more powerful antiseptic than carbolic acid. Like salicylic and boracic acids, it prevents fermentation and putrefaction and destroys minute organisms. In the system it is converted into hippuric acid, by the assumption of the elements of glycocol, and in this form is excreted in the urine; a large part is excreted by the kidneys, as benzoic acid.

Therapeutic Uses, - Benzoic acid is employed in chronic cystitis, gout, calculous diseases, jaundice, incontinence of urine in children, etc.

Dose

Gr. x.

Dental Uses

Benzoic acid is used as a mouth-wash for diseases of the oral mucous membrane in solution - Dental Uses 388 or more to of water; also as an injection in fractures of the jaws where the mouth cannot be opened to any extent. It may also be employed as an antiseptic in suppurating and gangrenous conditions of the pulps of teeth and mucous membrane; also as a local hemostatic in combination with powdered alum. It forms one of the ingredients of Dr. Chapin A. Harris' Gum Wash.

The tinctures of benzoin are employed in the treatment of unhealthy and sloughing wounds, flabby granulations, foul ulcers, as they destroy the fetor and stimulate to a more healthy growth. The compound tincture combined with the tinctures of iodine, aconite, and cannabis indica, forms an excellent counter-irritant for incipient periodontitis, pulpitis, alveolar pyorrhoea, etc., etc. In the antiseptic employment of benzoic acid, it may be used as a substitute for boracic and salicylic acids. The addition of borax will increase its solubility in water.

Benzoate of Ammonium - Ammonii Benzoas - will dissolve phosphatic calculi, if its use is long continued.

Benzoated lard, when employed in the preparation of ointments, prevents chemical change, such as rancidity or acridity.

It is prepared by digesting, at a moderate heat, Dental Uses 390 of powdered benzoin with a pound of lard.

Antiseptic Mouth Wash.

Dental Uses 391

Dr. W. D. Miller.

Tinct. eucalypti............... 15.

Alcoholis.................. 100.

Dental Uses 392

For an Antiseptic and Disinfectant Mouth Wash. Dr. L. P. Bethel.

Benzoic acid Orris root

Cinnamon, pv., aa.............. 1/4oz

Soap bark.................. 2-oz

Tannic acid................. idr

Borax.................... gr.20

01. peppermint................ idr

Cochineal.................. 3/4dr

Sugar.................... 4-oz

Alcohol................... 12-oz

Water................... 20-oz M.

Macerate 6 days and filter. Signa. - For rinsing purposes 6 or 8 drops in half a glass of water. In stronger solution for inflammation and pain after extraction.

Dental Uses 393

Listerine, the formula of which is thyme, eucalyptus, baptisia, gaultheria, and mentha arvensis, in combination, each fluid drachm also containing two grains of benzo-boracic acid, is largely employed as an antiseptic, deodorizer, and disinfectant, in surgical practice, in the form of a lotion, a gargle, a dressing, or an injection. In dental practice, listerine is reliable in inflammations and ulcerations of mucous membrane, and wounds of the mouth, in the form of a lotion or dressing; for alveolar abscesses, necrosis and caries of maxillary bones, in the form of injections and lotions; after the extraction of teeth, as a mouth wash; and for offensive breath, as a gargle. It may be employed in its full strength, or in various degrees of dilution with water.

For such diseases as diphtheria, catarrh, dysentery, scarlatina, erysipelas, smallpox, different forms of fevers, etc., the dose is one teaspoonful three or more times a day (as indicated).

For stomatitis of dentition.

Dental Uses 394

Listerine......

Syr. simplicis ....

Dental Uses 395Dental Uses 396

Listerine......

Glycerine.....

Water .... q.s. ad. Signa. - A teaspoonful every 2 to 4 hours after nursing or feeding.

Dental Uses 397

or -

Dental Uses 398

For Sore Mouth of Nursing Women.

Listerine

Glycerine.................

Rose water................

Signa

Use as a mouth wash.

Signa 399Signa 400

Local Anesthetic.

Dr. L. P. Bethel.

Listerine..................

Carbolic acid (crystals)............grs.x

Gum camphor...............grs.viij

Iodoform.................

Pond's ext. hammamelis...........

Signa

Used hypodermically.

Signa 401Signa 402